ACCENTS IN HEBREW:(Redirected from GERESH.)
- Place of Word-Accent.
- Secondary Accent (
- Use of Hyphen.
- Place of Sentence-Accent.
- Determination of Accent.
- List of Accents.
- List of Accents.
- Accentuation Supposed to be of Divine Origin.
- Post-Talmudic Origin.
- Value in Bible Interpretation.
Symbols denoting vocal stresses on particular syllables in pronouncing words or sentences. 1. In every word we utter, one syllable is spoken with greater emphasis and clearer enunciation than the rest. About it, as the strongly stressed or accented element, the other unaccented, or rather less strongly accented, syllables are grouped. Thus, in the word "contradict" the last syllable is the bearer of the main accent; a weaker, secondary accent rests on the first, while the italicized intermediate syllable is unaccented. Similarly, in a sentence, some words are pronounced with marked distinctness, while others are spoken hastily, almost without a stop, and made to lean forward or backward, as the italicized words in "he is a man of the world"; "I knew it." Both the accent which belongs to every word in itself ("word-accent") and the one which indicates its rank in a sentence ("sentence-accent") are to be regarded as the vital force which welds disjointed speech-elements into harmonious sense-units. The stops become particularly noticeable when, in a larger complex of clauses, they serve to mark the limits of each clause and its relation to the others. Some pauses are bound to be made, on physical grounds, to take breath; it is nearly always so arranged that the logical pauses shall coincide with those intervals. In an ordinary page of English the word-accent is never indicated (as it is in Greek), nor do the signs of punctuation (. : ; ,) show all the stops which careful reading in accordance with sense (especially oratorical delivery or the forceful recitàl of a literary masterpiece) requires. In the Hebrew text of the Bible, on the contrary, is found an elaborate system of signs (notations of stresses, or Accents) by which the stronger as well as the weaker stresses belonging to syllables and words are marked, so that a reader who is acquainted with the use of the symbols may recite the sacred texts correctly and, in appearance at least, intelligently, without considering grammar or sense.Name.
2. The Hebrew (Aramaic) word
On the term "trop" (the same as the English "trope," in the sense of a musical cadence) used by the Jews in their vernaculars, see Berliner, "Beiträgezur hebräischen Grammatik in Talmud und Midrasch," p. 29, note 4, Berlin, 1879.Sentence-Accent.
3. All of the Hebrew Accents are properly "sentence-accents." Hence they vary in form (
Hebrew words have their main accent either on the last syllable (
Penultimate accentuation may also be due to recession (
Properly, the secondary accent is due upon the second syllable from the main accent, provided the intervening syllable is long, that is, open with a long vowel, closed with a short vowel, or opened, that is, originally closed, with a short vowel:
Distinct from the
Small words of frequent occurrence, as the mono-syllabic prepositions and conjunctions (
4. The verse (
The Song of Moses (Deut. xxxii.) is still arranged in this fashion in the
Elsewhere the Verse-Division is an arbitrary, though convenient, innovation which was not permitted to penetrate into the Scrolls (the sign, marking the end of a verse, must be kept out of them; see Soferim, iii. 7). The whole of the Bible was to be read according to a rhythmical swing which even in the poetical compositions is largely determined by sense. The traditional verse, as a glance at the English Bible will show, does not always coincide with our period; nor is it always of the same length. For purposes of accentuation each verse must be dealt with separately. The problem is invariably: given a verse, determine the accentuation. The leading principle of the system is halving (extended from the poetical portions to the rest of the Bible). Each verse is divided into two parts not necessarily equal; these parts are each divided into two other parts; this process is continued until an indivisible complex of words is reached. The greater pauses are regulated by sense. Frequently, however, the logical pause is sacrificed to rhetorical effect. A characteristic deviation from the accepted method of punctuation consists in passing over introductory clauses or phrases which are treated as a subordinate part of what follows; for example, "And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters" (Gen. i. 6). The lesser pauses obey the laws of syntactical construction, which are obviously various in different languages. The English sentence "And the earth was waste and void" properly reads in Hebrew: "And the earth—it was waste and void"; hence there will be a pause in Hebrew after "and the earth." The order of words differs also. Compare the very opening of the Bible in Hebrew and in English. Rhetorical effect makes itself felt in connection with the smaller no less than in the case of the greater pauses. Thus, for the sake of emphasis, the pause may be shifted from one place to another; or it may be introduced within a group of words which is properly indivisible. In general, greater latitude is permissible in dealing with the slighter pauses. Individual taste will there play an important part. Rhythm is another factor. A group must consist of more than two words to admit of a marked pause within it. When thus the stops have been properly distributed in a verse, our next task is to indicate both the presence and the absence of a pause by the corresponding signs (accents). The accents are either pausal (
- 1. The proper measure of a poetical verse is two short lines (a distich or couplet). Such is the form of an ordinary verse in Proverbs. The main cesura is then marked by
V01p152001.jpg. But frequently, as in Psalms, a verse will contain three short lines (a tristich or triplet; that is, rhythm is sacrificed to sense); or a verse may contain four short lines (a tetrastich or quatrain; that is, two rhythmical verses making one sense-verse); or a verse, not necessarily long, may be trisected purely for reasons of sense or for the sake of oratorical emphasis. The main cesura will then be marked by V01p152002.jpg(a stronger V01p152003.jpg), while V01p152004.jpgwill be reserved for the secondary cesura (that is, the one between V01p152005.jpgand V01p152006.jpg). In the diagram the three by no means coordinate sections of the verse are designated by the letters A, B, and C. In a short verse, therefore, drop A, and retain B and C. In a still shorter verse (one consisting of but one short line), drop A and B, and retain C. This principle applies equally to the smaller sections on the diagram (that is, those limited by a pausal accent), the beginning of which may be lopped off to suit varying lengths.There will be found V01p152007.jpgin the sixth word from V01p152008.jpgand farther; it will be replaced by V01p152009.jpgoccasionally in the fifth, and almost always in the fourth word; V01p152010.jpgis never used farther to the left V01p152011.jpgis replaced by V01p152012.jpgalways in the first, occasionally also in the second, word (see note 19).
V01p152013.jpg(for V01p152014.jpg, V01p152015.jpg.
- 3. The main cesura in section A is marked by
V01p152016.jpg; when a second cesura becomes necessary, V01p152017.jpgis repeated. Observe, in general, that whenever an accent is repeated, the one farther to the left is the weaker. Between V01p152018.jpgand V01p152019.jpgthere must be no word (in which case V01p152020.jpgis called little V01p152021.jpg) or at least two words (then we have great V01p152022.jpg). Two V01p152023.jpgs must equally be separated by at least two words. When V01p152024.jpgbecomes impossible, V01p152025.jpgtakes its place. The shortest measure of section A is two words; a cesura is always required.
- 4. The servus of
V01p152026.jpgis V01p152027.jpg(or V01p152028.jpg, when properly the hyphen should be employed; or V01p152029.jpg, that is, with a V01p152030.jpg). This V01p152031.jpgmay occur in the same word with V01p152032.jpg(in place of the light V01p152033.jpg).Here V01p152034.jpg, "cutting off," "separating," is a line similar to the one used with V01p152035.jpgand V01p152036.jpg. It occurs (a) before or after the divine name "to prevent its being joined, in the reading, to a word which—in the opinion of the accentuators—it was not seemly to bring into contact with it"; (b) between two words of which the first ends in the same letter with which the second begins; (c) elsewhere, to mark an emphatic intonation. In all these cases, V01p152037.jpgintroduces a slight pause after a non-pausal accent.
- 5. In the section limited by great
V01p152038.jpg(great V01p152039.jpg's section), the main cesura is marked by V01p152040.jpg(rarely by V01p152041.jpg) and the secondary cesura by V01p152042.jpg. When only one cesura is required, it is marked by V01p152043.jpg(that is, the V01p152044.jpgsection is cut off); but V01p152045.jpgis found in exceptional cases, and necessarily, when two servi are introduced (see note 12). Sections of two words may and may not have a cesura. If required, it will, of course, be marked by V01p152046.jpg. The shortest measure is one word.
- 6. Great
V01p152047.jpgnever has more than one servus, which is V01p152048.jpg(exceptionally V01p152049.jpg; particularly when another V01p152050.jpgprecedes). When a pausal accent ( V01p152051.jpgor V01p152052.jpg) precedes, it is V01p152053.jpg, but V01p152054.jpgwhen an open syllable directly (that is, no V01p152055.jpgintervening) precedes the tone-syllable; these accents may appear in the same word with great V01p152056.jpgtaking the place of light V01p152057.jpg).
- 7. Sections of two words will occasionally have a cesura; it is omitted in the case of small words standing at the beginning of the section and accented on the first syllable, unless emphasis is desired. The cesura in little
V01p152058.jpg's section is marked by V01p152059.jpg. The shortest measure of little V01p152060.jpg's section is one word.
- 8. Little
V01p152061.jpgmay have two servi, V01p152062.jpg(or V01p152063.jpg); or one servus, V01p152064.jpg. The two servi ( V01p152065.jpg) appear occasionally in the same word (when the syllable immediately preceding the tone is open); but this rule is not always obeyed.
- 9. The cesura in
V01p152066.jpg's section is marked by the same accent, and is dependent upon the same conditions as the cesura in little V01p152067.jpg's section (see note 7). A secondary cesura is seldom required; the accent marking the main cesura will then be repeated. The shortest measure of V01p152068.jpg's section is one word.
V01p152069.jpgmay have two servi, V01p152070.jpg(i.e., V01p152071.jpgwhen the tone falls on the second letter and farther; V01p152072.jpgwhen on the first); or one servus, V01p152073.jpg(it may appear instead of light V01p152074.jpgin the same word with V01p152075.jpg) (or V01p152076.jpg). In a few instances three servi are found: V01p152077.jpg.
V01p152078.jpg, when a servus precedes; or when the tone falls on the third syllable or farther; in all other cases, V01p152079.jpg(the latter always between V01p152080.jpgand V01p152081.jpg).
- 12. There is no cesura in
V01p152082.jpg's section. Its shortest measure is one word. Except in two instances, V01p152083.jpghas never more than one servus, V01p152084.jpg, when the tone is on the first syllable (but in two instances in the place of the hyphen); or on the second when it is simple and the first syllable is a simple closed one without heavy V01p152085.jpgwhen the condition mentioned in note 6 is fulfilled; V01p152086.jpgin all other cases (but V01p152087.jpgin a few instances where the V01p152088.jpgor V01p152089.jpgpreceding the tone-syllable is abnormal). Two servi: V01p152090.jpgin the place of a hyphen.
- 13. The rules for the division of
V01p152091.jpg's section are the same as those laid down for great V01p152092.jpg(see note 5).
V01p152093.jpghas properly only one servus, V01p152094.jpg, when the tone is on the first syllable; V01p152095.jpgwhen on any other syllable (but V01p152096.jpg; also V01p152097.jpgexceptionally in two places; in one of them two consecutive V01p152098.jpg's are found); always V01p152099.jpgwhen under a dageshed letter, except in three places, where V01p152100.jpgis found again. Exceptionally two servi are found: V01p152101.jpg; the first is properly in the place of a hyphen; once we find V01p152102.jpg, where again the first is in the place of a hyphen.
- 15. The main cesura in section B is marked by
V01p152103.jpg; for a second cesura, V01p152104.jpgwill be repeated; and so on. The V01p152105.jpgs may follow each other closely. Properly, between V01p152106.jpgand V01p152107.jpgat least two words should intervene. This must always be the case when V01p152108.jpgmarks a subordinate cesura; otherwise an interval of one word is frequently sufficient. When V01p152109.jpgbecomes impossible or undesirable, V01p152110.jpgtakes its place. The interval between V01p152111.jpgand V01p152112.jpgmust never exceed one word. V01p152113.jpgis frequently found in the second word from V01p152114.jpg. It is found in the first only when V01p152115.jpg's word is long; that is, when the tone-syllable therein is preceded by at least two syllables, or by one syllable, provided it is the bearer of a secondary accent (see § 3); otherwise V01p152116.jpggives way to a servus. The shortest measure of B is two words (except after V01p152117.jpg,when one word is sufficient). Sections of two words may and may not have a cesura.
V01p153001.jpgshould properly never have more than one servus. In all cases where two or more servi are found the servus immediately preceding V01p153002.jpgis a substitute for V01p153003.jpg(see note 15). Three servi: V01p153004.jpg(but V01p153005.jpg, i.e., V01p153006.jpgwhen the tone is on the third syllable; or on the second syllable when the first syllable is overlong; V01p153007.jpgwhen the condition mentioned in note 6 is fulfilled; V01p153008.jpgin all other cases). In three instances V01p153009.jpgtakes the place of the middle servus; it is preceded by V01p153010.jpgand followed by V01p153011.jpg(when the tone is due on the first syllable) or by V01p153012.jpg(when the usual condition is fulfilled). Two servi: V01p153013.jpg(but V01p153014.jpg). One servus: V01p153015.jpgafter V01p153016.jpg(but V01p153017.jpg); V01p153018.jpgin all other cases. More than three servi are found in three instances: in one V01p153019.jpgoccupies the second place before V01p153020.jpg; in the others the multiplication of servi is due to the resolution of hyphenated words.
- 17. Theoretically,
V01p153022.jpgmarks the main, and V01p153023.jpgthe secondary cesura in V01p153024.jpg's section; but V01p153025.jpg's section is usually too short to require two cesuras. One expects V01p153026.jpgto be the accent where only one cesura is required. Such is frequently the case. But V01p153027.jpgis employed when the section in front of the cesura must itself be bisected, or when the pausal accent requires two servi before it (in either case V01p153028.jpgis out of the question; see note 12); sometimes (in three instances) for no apparent reason ( V01p153029.jpgand V01p153030.jpgare so nearly alike in pausal force that occasionally one is placed for the other). Between V01p153031.jpgand V01p153032.jpgthere must be at least one word. Otherwise V01p153033.jpggives way to a servus. The shortest measure of V01p153034.jpg's section is one word. Sections of two words, of course, have no cesura. The cesura fails likewise in the case of small words standing at the beginning of the section and accented on the first syllable, unless emphasis is desired. The foregoing rules remain in force, even when V01p153035.jpggives way to a servus (see note 15).
V01p153036.jpgshould properly never have more than one servus: V01p153037.jpg(it may be found, instead of light V01p153038.jpg, in the same word with V01p153039.jpgonly when the syllable preceding the tone-syllable is overlong and has α or ō for its vowel). When two servi appear, the one adjoining V01p153040.jpg) is a substitute for V01p153041.jpg(see note 17), while the one farther to the left is V01p153042.jpg's servus (see note 12): V01p153043.jpg. Once three servi are found: V01p153044.jpg; V01p153045.jpgtakes the place of a hyphen.
- 19. The main cesura in section C is marked by
V01p153046.jpg; the secondary cesura by V01p153047.jpg. When only one cesura is required, V01p153048.jpgshould properly mark it. However, V01p153049.jpgis employed (the two accents are presumably regarded as of equal force; see, for a similar substitution, note 17). Between V01p153050.jpgand V01p153051.jpgthere must be at least one word. When V01p153052.jpgis due in the word immediately preceding V01p153053.jpg, it is replaced by a servus, V01p153054.jpg. Another servus, V01p153055.jpg, may be placed in the next preceding word. This necessitates a further change: V01p153056.jpg(marking the main cesura), which does not permit V01p153057.jpgimmediately after it, and is transformed into V01p153058.jpg. V01p153059.jpgmay be found in the word adjoining V01p153060.jpgonly when V01p153061.jpg's word is long; otherwise V01p153062.jpggives way to a servus. This may necessitate a further change: when the word adjoining V01p153063.jpgis itself short (that is, with only one syllable, which is not the bearer of a secondary accent, before the accented syllable); V01p153064.jpg, when due on the next preceding word, is replaced by V01p153065.jpg. The shortest measure of C is one word. But V01p153066.jpgdoes not permit V01p153067.jpgimmediately before it; the latter accent will then be replaced by V01p153068.jpg, the other accents remaining the same as before V01p153069.jpg. Sections of two words have a cesura, provided the last word is of sufficient length to permit V01p153070.jpgbefore it (see above).
V01p153071.jpgshould properly never have more than one servus. In all cases where two or more servi are found, the servus immediately preceding V01p153072.jpgis a substitute for V01p153073.jpg(see note 19). Three servi: V01p153074.jpg, that is, V01p153075.jpgand V01p153076.jpgupon the same conditions as before V01p153077.jpg(see note 16); where V01p153078.jpgis used before V01p153079.jpgwill be employed here. Two servi: V01p153080.jpg; but V01p153081.jpgmay take the place of light V01p153082.jpgin the same word with V01p153083.jpg(provided that V01p153084.jpgdoes not precede; see note 19); in a few places the servi are altogether irregular. One servus: V01p153085.jpg(when the tone is on the first syllable; but V01p153086.jpg), V01p153087.jpg(when on any other syllable), or V01p153088.jpg(after V01p153089.jpg). In a few instances four servi are found.
- 21. There is no cesura in
V01p153090.jpg's section. Its shortest measure is one word. Except in a few instances, V01p153091.jpghas never more than two servi. Three servi: V01p153092.jpgor V01p153093.jpgaccording to the usual rule); in three passages: V01p153094.jpgand V01p153095.jpg. Two servi: V01p153096.jpg. One servus: V01p153097.jpg. The servi of V01p153098.jpgare the same as those of V01p153099.jpg.As an illustration of the application of the above diagram and rules to concrete cases, the first four verses of Psalm cx. are given above. The cesuras are indicated as in the diagram; the figures refer to the notes.
The verse from Ecclesiasticus quoted above would be accented as follows:
- 1. The verse may be of varying length. In a long verse
V01p154026.jpgmarks the main cesura. The two sections are designated in the diagram by the letters A and B. In a short verse drop A and retain B. The shortest measure of a verse is two words. The cesura never fails. V01p154027.jpg's proper place is in the fifth word from V01p154028.jpgand farther; when due in the fourth and farther to the left, it may be replaced by V01p154030.jpgor V01p154031.jpg(in accordance with the rules laid down for the position of those accents in note 2); the substitution is common in short verses; it necessarily takes place in verses of three or two words; in the first word before V01p154032.jpg(even in a long verse), V01p154033.jpgis rarely used (except in cases of a marked logical pause).
- 2. The main cesura in A is marked by
V01p154034.jpg; the second by V01p154035.jpg; for every following cesura V01p154036.jpgis repeated until the last is reached, which is marked by V01p154037.jpgBetween V01p154038.jpgand V01p154039.jpgat least three words must intervene; but the proper place is at a considerable distance from V01p154040.jpg. Between V01p154041.jpgand V01p154042.jpgthere must be at least one word. When V01p154043.jpg's word and the one adjoining it are both short the distance between V01p154044.jpgand V01p154045.jpgmust amount to two words. When V01p154046.jpgbecomes impossible V01p154047.jpgtakes its place. In a few instances where the two words immediately preceding V01p154048.jpgare very short, that is, mono-syllables, and properly subject to hyphenation, V01p154049.jpgis found in the third word; this is its utmost limit to the right. The shortest measure of A is one word. Sections of two words always have a cesura.
V01p154050.jpg's servus is V01p154051.jpg(which is repeated in the few instances which call for a second servus; see note 2). In a few instances V01p154052.jpgis found in the same word with V01p154053.jpg; grammarians incorrectly call it a servus ( V01p154054.jpg"inclined").
- 4. The main cesura in
V01p154055.jpg's section is marked by V01p154056.jpg, which is repeated for every following cesura until the last is reached, which is marked by V01p154057.jpg. Between V01p154058.jpgand V01p154059.jpgthere must be at least one word. When V01p154060.jpg's word or the one adjoining is long, V01p154061.jpgis admissible in the second word, but is not necessary. When V01p154062.jpgbecomes impossible or undesirable, V01p154063.jpgtakes its place. V01p154064.jpgis comparatively rare in the third word; this is its utmost limit to the right. The shortest measure of V01p154065.jpg's section is two words. The cesura never fails. When only one word is available V01p154066.jpgtakes the place of V01p154067.jpg.
- 5. Between two
V01p154068.jpg's there must be at least three words. When the interval is shorter the one to the left is transformed into V01p154069.jpg; the change does not affect the V01p154070.jpgnext to the left, which always maintains its position, there being a sufficiently long interval between it and the V01p154071.jpgpreceding it. Between V01p154072.jpgand V01p154073.jpgor V01p154074.jpgthere must be at least two words; otherwise V01p154075.jpgis transformed into V01p154076.jpgor V01p154077.jpg. But V01p154078.jpgmay precede another V01p154079.jpg; this is the only case in which two V01p154080.jpg's may come together.
V01p154081.jpgmay have one or two servi, both V01p154082.jpg's.
- 7. The main cesura in
V01p154083.jpg's section is marked by V01p154084.jpg, which is repeated for every following cesura until a point is reached when V01p154085.jpgis inadmissible or undesirable (see below); then it gives way to V01p154086.jpg; the next cesura is marked by V01p154087.jpg; then comes V01p154088.jpgwhich may be repeated. Between V01p154089.jpgand V01p154090.jpgthere must be at least four words. It is rarely found in the fourth word. It necessarily replaces there V01p154091.jpgwhen the next cesura is due immediately before V01p154092.jpgthen becomes unavailable (see below), and V01p154093.jpgtakes its place (that is, V01p154094.jpg's section is obliterated); the interval between V01p154095.jpgand V01p154096.jpgmust never exceed one word; otherwise V01p154097.jpgand V01p154098.jpg(the servus due in the second word before V01p154099.jpg; see note 13) would come together, and, on musical grounds, the two accents can not come together without a pausal accent between them. In a few instances V01p154100.jpgtakes the place of V01p154101.jpgin the fourth or third word for no apparent reason. Between V01p154102.jpgand V01p154103.jpgthere must be at least two words; it is found in the second only when the two next following words are both long; its utmost limit appears to be the fifth or sixth word (where it replaces V01p154104.jpgfor the main cesura). When V01p154105.jpgbecomes unavailable it gives way to V01p154106.jpg. Between the latter and V01p154107.jpgthere need be no interval; its utmost limit is the fourth word. Between V01p154108.jpgand V01p154109.jpgthere must be at least one word; it is found in the first only in the place of ( V01p154110.jpg(that is, V01p154111.jpg) when the latter sign is due before V01p154112.jpg(strangely enough, the notation remains the same); its utmost limit appears to be the third word. In a section consisting of only three words V01p154113.jpgmay take the place of V01p154114.jpgin the second word. The shortest measure of V01p154115.jpg's section is one word. Sections of two words may or may not have a cesura; the cesura is likely to occur when the last word is long, but it is not necessary even then. The cesura may be left out also in sections of three words provided it is due immediately before V01p154116.jpg.V01p154029.jpgIn the twenty-one books V01p154117.jpgis especially employed to mark a stop in long sections limited by V01p154118.jpg, or V01p154119.jpg, for the subdivision of which by means of pausal accents there exists no provision in the accentual system; or to mark a stop immediately before V01p154120.jpg, or V01p154121.jpgneither V01p154122.jpgnor V01p154123.jpgbeing available (see note 15)
- 8. (
V01p155001.jpgmay have one or two servi. Two servi: V01p155002.jpg. One servus: V01p155003.jpg. The latter is occasionally found in the same word with V01p155004.jpg, especially in order to indicate a compound word ( V01p155005.jpg, Eccl. iv. 10, for example).
- 9. There is no cesura in
V01p155006.jpg's section. Its shortest measure is one word. V01p155007.jpgmay have from one to six servi, all V01p155008.jpg's. V01p155009.jpgis found in sixteen instances; in every instance V01p155010.jpgmight have been used. V01p155011.jpgnever stands alone; it may have as many as six servi: V01p155012.jpgetc.
- 10. There is no cesura in
V01p155013.jpg's section. Its shortest measure is one word. V01p155014.jpgmay have from one to five servi, all V01p155015.jpg's. V01p155016.jpgand V01p155017.jpgare constantly interchanged, particularly where the former is subordinated to V01p155018.jpg(see note 11) or to the servus that takes the place of V01p155019.jpg(see note 15).
V01p155020.jpg's section should properly be indivisible. But very often a division is introduced. The main cesura is then marked by V01p155021.jpg, and the second by V01p155022.jpg. Between V01p155023.jpgand V01p155024.jpgat least two words should properly intervene; the former is rarely found in the second word. Sometimes, when there are only two words in V01p155025.jpg's section, a cesura is introduced. Similarly, in a few very rare instances, V01p155026.jpg's section is bisected; V01p155027.jpgthen marks the cesura. The reason for the phenomena just mentioned is apparently the slight and almost imperceptible difference in pausal force between the three accents: V01p155028.jpg, and V01p155029.jpg. The shortest measure of V01p155030.jpg's section is one word.
V01p155031.jpgwhen the accent is on the penultimate, or when V01p155032.jpgprecedes; V01p155033.jpgwhen the accent is on the ultimate, and V01p155034.jpgdoes not precede.
V01p155035.jpgmay have from one to five servi, but V01p155036.jpgcan have only one. Three or more servi: V01p155037.jpg, etc. Two servi: V01p155038.jpg. One servus: V01p155039.jpg(when the accent is on the first letter of the word, this is the only servus V01p155040.jpgcan take), or V01p155041.jpg(when on any other letter). V01p155042.jpgmay take the place of light V01p155043.jpgin the same word with V01p155044.jpgwhen no other servus precedes (except when the V01p155045.jpgdivides V01p155046.jpgor V01p155047.jpg, or when V01p155048.jpgfollows, unless at the same time V01p155049.jpgprecedes).
- 14. There is no cesura in
V01p155050.jpg's section. Its shortest measure is one word. V01p155051.jpgmay have one or two servi: V01p155052.jpg.
- 15. The rules for the division of
V01p155053.jpg's, V01p155054.jpg's, and V01p155055.jpg's sections are nearly the same as those governing the division of V01p155056.jpg's section (see note 7). The following differences should be noted: V01p155057.jpg's section is seldom available (only three instances are recorded). V01p155058.jpgmay be found in the second word before V01p155059.jpg, etc., though not frequently, even when the two words next following are both short; its utmost limit appears to be the fifth word (where it replaces V01p155060.jpgfor the main cesura). In five passages V01p155061.jpgand V01p155062.jpgare found in the same word (second from V01p155063.jpg, etc.); there was evidently a difference of opinion among the accentuators; both accents are now chanted, V01p155064.jpgfirst. Between V01p155065.jpgand V01p155066.jpgthere must be at least one word (but see below); its regular utmost limit is the third word; it is found in the fourth only when the next following cesura is marked by V01p155067.jpg(see above), or when it and V01p155068.jpgchange places, as in Gen. i. 12; only in the latter case V01p155069.jpgmay be found in the fifth word (see Deut. xvii. 5); V01p155070.jpgand V01p155071.jpgmay also change places when the latter accent is due in the third word. When V01p155072.jpgbecomes unavailable it gives way to a servus, its own servi remaining; V01p155073.jpgmay remain when the last word is long. The section limited by V01p155074.jpg, etc., may contain no more than one word. Sections of two words may and may not have a cesura; a cesura is admissible when the latter of the two words is long and the interval between the tone-syllables considerable; but even then it is rarely introduced; the accent marking the cesura is V01p155075.jpg. The cesura may be left out occasionally also in sections of three words even when it is due at a sufficiently long distance (that is, after the first word of the section) to make V01p155076.jpgavailable.
- 16. When
V01p155077.jpgis due on the first letter of the word and no servus precedes, it is replaced by V01p155078.jpg.
V01p155079.jpg, etc., may have as many as six servi. Four or more servi: V01p155080.jpg. Three servi: V01p155081.jpg. Two servi: V01p155082.jpg—that is, V01p155083.jpgwhen on the first letter, and V01p155084.jpgwhen elsewhere; the two servi may occasionally appear in the same word, the first replacing the light V01p155085.jpgor indicating the end of the first part in a compound word; V01p155086.jpgmay take the place of V01p155087.jpgbetween V01p155088.jpgand V01p155089.jpgwhen V01p155090.jpgoccurs in the latter's word, or when V01p155091.jpgprecedes. One servus: before V01p155092.jpg, that is, V01p155093.jpg, when two or more syllables intervene between the servus and V01p155094.jpgat the beginning of a word and furtive V01p155095.jpgcounting as syllables; V01p155096.jpgwhen only one syllable (even an overlong syllable) or none at all intervenes; V01p155097.jpgalways remains before V01p155098.jpg, provided no other servus precedes, may replace V01p155099.jpg(in the same word with V01p155100.jpg) when the latter is due in an overlong syllable (immediately before V01p155101.jpg); but not in an open syllable separated from V01p155102.jpgby another open syllable or by an incompletely reduced vowel ( V01p155103.jpg); before V01p155104.jpgthat is, V01p155105.jpg, when one or more syllables intervene between the servus and the tone-syllable of V01p155106.jpg's word, V01p155107.jpgat the beginning of a word and furtive V01p155108.jpgcounting as above; in a few compound words V01p155109.jpgappears in the same word with V01p155110.jpgwhen no syllable intervenes; V01p155111.jpgalways remains before V01p155112.jpg; before V01p155113.jpg.
V01p155114.jpgwhen a servus precedes; otherwise V01p155115.jpgis used.
- 19. The rules for the division of
V01p155116.jpg's section are the same as those governing the division of V01p155117.jpg's section except that for V01p155118.jpgthere is used here V01p155119.jpg. The shortest measure of V01p155120.jpg's section is two words. Sections of two words may or may not have a cesura. The cesura always fails when the second word is short; when it is long a cesura must be introduced, unless the first word is very short, or is a word of frequent occurrence.
V01p155121.jpgmay have one or two servi, both V01p155122.jpgs. V01p155123.jpgmay appear in the same word with V01p155124.jpg, provided that no second V01p155125.jpgprecedes, in place of light V01p155126.jpg(it must not divide V01p155127.jpgor V01p155128.jpg; see note 13), but not on the first letter; when V01p155129.jpgis inadmissible and the pausal accent preceding is not V01p155130.jpg(called here V01p155131.jpg, or a kind of V01p155132.jpg) is introduced in the place of the heavy V01p155133.jpg; when neither V01p155134.jpgnor V01p155135.jpgis admissible V01p155136.jpgis necessarily employed.
- 21. The rules for the division of
V01p155137.jpg's section are the same as those governing the division of V01p155138.jpg's section except that for V01p155139.jpgthere is used here V01p155140.jpg. The shortest measure of V01p155141.jpg's section is one word. Sections of two words may or may not have a cesura (a cesura may be introduced only when V01p155142.jpg's word is long).
V01p155143.jpghas usually only one servus: V01p155144.jpg. It occasionally appears in the place of light V01p155145.jpg, or in compound words, in the same place with V01p155146.jpg. In fourteen instances V01p155147.jpgis preceded by two servi: V01p155148.jpg( V01p155149.jpgis properly a weakened V01p155150.jpgis V01p155151.jpg's servus).
- 23. The rules for the division of section B are the same as those governing A except that
V01p155152.jpgis not available here. The shortest measure of B is one word. Sections of two words always have a cesura.
V01p155153.jpg's servus is V01p155154.jpg. In a few instances V01p155155.jpgis found in the same word with V01p155156.jpg; see note 3).
For the sake of illustration the Second Commandment(Ex. xx 3-6) is here subjoined (according to the
The use of a separate system for the three books requires an explanation. Luzzatto (in his "Prolegomeni ad Una Grammatica Ragionata della Lingua Ebraica," pp. 177 et seq.; letter to Baer appended to the latter's treatise,
A double accentuation is found in Gen. xxxv. 22 (one is intended for the verse ending at the Masoretic section; the other extends farther so as to slur over the uncomplimentary story concerning the misconduct of Reuben,
With the superlinear vocalization goes a system of superlinear accentuation. The signs for the pausal Accents differ; some of them represent the actual or modified initial letters of their names; they are placed invariably above the line. The signs for the non-pausal Accents are the same as in the ordinary system, and are infralinear. The system also aims at simplicity. Ambiguous signs are avoided;
5. The general belief of the Jews in the Middle Ages was that both the vocalization and accentuation originated with Ezra and the mythical Great Synagogue. Thus Ben Asher (
Ben Asher's opinion of the sacredness of the Accents was shared by the contemporaries of Saadia (892-942). This gaon was accused by his detractors of ascribing to himself the gift of prophecy because he had written a treatise in Biblical style with vowel-points and Accents. In his defense Saadia pointed to extracanonical writings (such as Sirach, Scroll of the Hasmoneans, and others) which were pointed and accented. While Saadia evidently does not assign to the accentuation special sacredness, he is nevertheless far from suspecting its recent origin; for, speaking of Sirach's book, he says that he (Sirach) furnished it with points and Accents (wj'alahu musammanan mut'aman). See Saadia's
6. The accentuation, like the vocalization, is certainly a post-Talmudic innovation. The treatise Soferim, in which for the first time reference is made to points marking the beginning (or, as it may be called, the end) of a verse (iii. 7), and possibly also to signs (points) by which the subdivisions of a verse are indicated, is post-Talmudic.
7. One is led to the same conclusion by an examination of the Syriac system of accentuation introduced at the end of the fifth century by the grammarian Joseph Huzaya (Wright, "A Short History of Syriac Literature," pp. 115 et seq., London, 1894), to which the Hebrew system bears a striking resemblance and from which it is apparently derived. The Syrians, apt disciples of the Greeks, adopted from the latter their method of reading, and accordingly also their system of punctuation. The Greeks distinguished three kinds of reading (ἀνάγνωσις): oratorical or dramatic delivery implying declamation and gesticulation (καθ ὑπόκρισιν); reading in accordance with the tone, that is, word-accent (κατἁ προσῳδίαν), and reading in accordance with pauses required by the sense (κατἁ διαστολήν). A single point (στιγμή), placed above or below or in the middle of the line, indicated the pauses; the upper point (τελεία στιγμή) at the end of a period complete in itself (αὐτοτελής), the lower point (ὑποστιγμή) between protasis and apodosis, and the middle point (μέση στιγμή) in a long sentence in order to permit the reader to take breath. Upon this modest system, which is found in our oldest Syriac manuscripts, Huzaya founded a more elaborate one to mark the subordinate divisions in a more regular and careful manner. The following diagram will illustrate the system (A means protasis, and B apodosis):
Compare with this the Hebrew (prose) system in its essential parts:
The point employed at the end the Syrians call påsoḳå, that is, "sector";
8. It is doubtful whether the vocalization and accentuation were introduced simultaneously. Perhaps the latter followed the former. Both became an object of care to the Masoretes, who, in addition to the task of preserving the traditional consonantal text intact, undertook to watch over the traditional vowel-points and accent-signs. Compare, for example, the Masoretic note to Jer. i. 7:
9. The accentuation offers an invaluable aid to the understanding of the Biblical text. One must, however, constantly bear in mind its limitations, which are of a twofold character. On the one hand, in attempting to accomplish too much, the system fails in important points. In short verses its pauses are unnecessary; in long verses there are not enough of them. Sense is not infrequently sacrificed to rhetorical effect. The imperfection of the system is particularly noticeable in the awkwardness with which a parenthesis is indicated (compare, for example, Jer. xx. 1). Nor is it always easy to tell just what the accentuators had in mind in choosing a certain mode of accentuation. While, for the finer points of Biblical exegesis, a knowledge of the Accents is indispensable, the beginner in the study of the Bible should not be burdened with learning more than a few of the important pausals, which are quite sufficient for ordinary purposes. On the other hand, the accentuation represents the interpretation current in the Jewish schools at a comparatively late period. While, on the whole, the accentuation endeavors to be true to the natural meaning (peshaṭ; which see) of the Biblical documents, it does not altogether keep itself free from dogmatic prejudices (see I Sam. iii. 3), which it indeed shares with the ancient versions. At best the accentuation is representative of traditional Jewish exegesis, which the student of the Bible is frequently forced to overrule. The rule laid down by Abraham ibn Ezra:
In Isa. xl. 3 there is a famous case where the accentuation (
The Accents in the ordinary editions of the Bible are frequently unreliable. Baer's and Ginsburg's Bible editions (where also important variants are noted) are indispensable to one interested in Biblical accentuation.
- The oldest rules on the subject of the Biblical Accents may be found in Ben Asher's treatise,
V01p158005.jpg V01p158006.jpg, edited by Baer and Strack, §§ 16-28, 30-35, 41, 42, 47, Leipsic, l879.
- A treatise falsely ascribed to Judah ben Bil'am (
V01p158007.jpg, ed. Mercerus, Paris, 1565) deals with the subject at greater length (the same treatise in Arabic may be found in Wickes, Poetical Accentuation, pp. 102 et seq.).
- In Ḥayyuj's
V01p158008.jpg(ed. Nutt, pp. 126-129, London, 1870) there is found a chapter on the Accents, which, however, was not written by the famous grammarian himself.
- Manuel du Lecteur is the name given by J. Derenbourg to a treatise on points of grammar and Masorah, edited by him (Paris, 1871) from a Yemen manuscript; it contains rules on the Accents.
- A useful compilation from the works of early Jewish writers on the prose Accents is Wolf Heidenheim's work,
V01p158009.jpg V01p158010.jpg, Rödelheim, 1808. A few other treatises are mentioned in Wickes. To Christian writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Bohlius, Wasmuth, Spitzner, and others) belongs the merit of formulating the principle of halving (see § 4).
- The paragraphs devoted to the subject in the current Hebrew grammars are more or less superficial (beginners will find the chapter on Accents in Driver's Hebrew Tenses, Oxford, 1892, very serviceable).
- An elaborate discussion is found only in the grammars of Luzzatto (§§ 69-164; compare also his Prolegomeni, 177-191), Ewald (§§ 95-100; Ewald rejects the principle of halving, in the place of which he puts his own principle of tripartition; the discussion is quite abstruse) and Olshausen (§§ 41-53; compare the diagram for the prose Accents on pp. 98 and 99, which resembles the diagram given above, § 4).
- Baer's treatise,
V01p158011.jpg, Rödelheim, 1853, deserves notice (compare also Baer in Delitzsch, Commentary on the Psalms, 1860).
- The most thorough works on Biblical accentuation (from which much of the material available for § 4 has been taken, with the necessary simplification) are the ones by William Wickes, Poetical Accentuation, Oxford, 1881;
- idem, Prose Accentuation, Oxford, 1887.
- Compare also Japhet,
V01p158012.jpg, Die Accente der Heiligen Schrift, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1896;
- König, Gedanke, Laut, und Accent als die Drei Factoren der Sprachbildung, Weimar, 1874;
- Grimme, Abriss der Biblisch-Hebräischen Metrik, in Z. D. M. G. li. 529 et seq., 683 et seq.; idem, Grundzüge der Hebräischen Accent-und Vokallehre, Freiburg (Switzerland), 1896;
- idem, Collectanea Friburgensia, fase. v.;
- Prætorius, Ueber den Rückweichenden Accent im Hebräischen, Halle-on-the-Saale, 1897;
- Ackermann, Das Hermeneutische Element der Biblischen Accentuation, Berlin, 1893;
- Nathan, Die Tonzeichen in der Bibel, in Programm der Talmud-Tora-Realschule, Hamburg, 1893;
- Friedlander, Die Beiden Systeme der Hebräischen Vokalund Accentzeichen, in Monatsschrift, xxxviii. 311 et seq.