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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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POPPERS, JACOB BEN BENJAMIN COHEN – German rabbi; born at Prague in the middle of the seventeenth century; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1740. His father, who was a distinguished Talmudist, instructed him in rabbinical literature, in which he acquired great...
PORGES (PORJES), AARON B. BENJAMIN – Rabbi in Prague in the seventeenth century. Under the title "Zikron Aharon" he wrote an introduction to the "Ḳiẓẓur Ma'abar Yabboḳ," concerning the ancient Jewish customs relating to death and the dead, and containing also...
PORGES, MOSES BEN ISRAEL NAPHTALI HIRSCH – Rabbinical author; lived at Jerusalem at the beginning of the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Darke Ẓiyyon" (Amsterdam, 1650), written, in Judæo-German, after he had removed to Prague. The work is in four parts and is...
PORGING – The cutting away of forbidden fat and veins from kasher meat. The Mosaic law emphatically forbids the eating of the fat and blood of cattle or poultry, the fat and blood of peace-offerings being appropriated as sacrifices to...
POSNER, DAVID BEN NAPHTALI HERZ – Polish Talmudic compiler; lived about the middle of the seventeenth century in Posen, and later in Krotoschin. He was the author of "Yalḳuṭ Dawid" (Dyhernfurth, 1691), homiletic collectanea on the Pentateuch from the Talmud, the...
POSNER, SOLOMON ZALMAN – Polish rabbi: born at Landsberg about 1778 (?); died in Loslau in 1863; son of Joseph Landsberg, rabbi of Posen. At Solomon's wish his sons erected a wooden monument over his grave at Loslau.Posner was the author of several as...
POULTRY – Biblical Data: The rearing of domestic fowl for various uses became a part of Palestinian husbandry only after the return from Babylon (see Cock; Hen); but from Isa. lx. 8 it appears that at the time when that passage was...
PRAYER – Biblical Data: From the earliest epochs recorded in the Bible profound distress or joyous exaltation found expression in prayer. However primitive the mode of worship, the individual is commonly depicted as petitioning or...
PRECEDENCE – Classes and Ranks. Priority and preference given to individuals as a matter of established rule or etiquette. The superiority of the husband over his wife was recognized when God said to Eve, "He [Adam] shall rule over thee."...
PRERAU, BENJAMIN WOLF – Moravian Hebraist; lived at Prerau in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He published Bedersi's "Baḳḳashat ha-Memin," to which he added a German translation, a Hebrew commentary, and an introduction in which each word, as...
PRIEST – Laymen as Priests. —Biblical Data: One consecrated to the service of the sanctuary and, more particularly, of the altar. This definition, however, holds true rather for the later than for the earlier stages of Hebrew priesthood....
PRILUK (PRZYLUK; PURLIK; FRILOCK), ARYEH LÖB – Polish author of the seventeenth century. He wrote a commentary on the Zohar from the pericope "Shemot" to "Ḥuḳḳat," which was published, with the "Sefer Yirah," in Berlin in 1724. The latter book also is credited to...
PRIORITY – The rules as to priority among deeds conveying the lands of a grantor, or among bonds operating as liens upon all the obligor's lands, have been indicated under Alienation. It remains to speak as to priorities in the case of a...
PROCEDURE IN CIVIL CAUSES – No Judgment by Default. Jewish jurisprudence, both in Biblical and in Talmudic times, attached the greatest importance to the laws of property and to their faithful administration by the judges. In regard to the manner of...
PROSBUL – An abbreviated form of the Greek phrase πρὸς βουλῇ βουλευτῶν ("before the assembly of counselors"; comp. Schürer, "Hist. of the Jewish People," etc., Eng. ed., division ii., vol. i., p. 362, who favors the derivation from...
PROVIDENCE – Two Senses of the Term. The term occurs only in the Apocryphal books (Wisdom xiv. 3, xvii. 2), and has no equivalent in Biblical Hebrew, the later philosophical writers employing "hashgaḥah" as a translation for the Arabic...
PUNISHMENT – It has been shown in the articles Capital Punishment, Crime, Homicide, and Stripes that a court may inflict for the violation of one of the prohibitive laws a sentence of: (1) death in one of four different forms; (2) exile to...
RABBAN – Title given only to patriarchs, the presidents of the Sanhedrin. The first person to be called by this title was the patriarch Gamaliel I., ha-Zaḳen. The title was handed down from him to all succeeding patriarchs. According to...
RACHEL – Biblical Data: Laban's younger daughter, who became one of Jacob's wives (Gen. xxix. 26-28). Her first meeting with Jacob occurred at a well near Haran, whither she had taken the flocks for water. As she was beautiful and well...
RAGOLER, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON – Lithuanian Talmudist of the eighteenth century; born at Wilna; brother of Elijah b. Solomon (Elijah Wilna). Ragoler was preacher at Shklov and the author of "Ma'alot ha-Torah" (2d ed., Königsberg, 1851), a collection of Talmudic...
RAGOLER, ELIJAH BEN JACOB – Early Proficiency. Russian rabbi and cabalist; born at Neustadt Sugind, government of Kovno, in 1794; died at Kalisz Nov. 5, 1849; a descendant of Mordecai Jaffe through Ẓebi Hirsch Ashkenazi (Ḥakam Ẓebi). After Ragoler's...
RAHAB – Biblical Data: A woman of Jericho who sheltered the spies sent by Joshua to search out the land. Having arrived at Jericho, the two spies remained at Rahab's house, situated in the wall of the city and having a window on the...
RAKOWER (BLOCH), JOSEPH B. DAVID TEBELE – Polish rabbi and Hebraist; died in Eibenschütz, Moravia, Nov., 1707. He was rabbi of Eibenschütz, whither he had removed from Cracow. He is chiefly known as the author of "Leshon Naḳi," one of the best Hebrew "letter-writers" of...
RAMESES – 1. Egyptian city; one of the "treasure cities" built by the Israelites in their servitude (Ex. i. 11: "Raamses"); the point from which they started on their journey through the wilderness (Ex. xii. 37). Further, the northeast...
RAPA, ELIJAH B. MENAHEM (ELIJAH RAPOPORT) – Italian Talmudist of the sixteenth century. He was the author of "Be'er Mayim Ḥayyim" (Corfu, 1599), on Talmudic and other subjects, and "Ereẓ Ḥefeẓ." (n.d.), on Biblical and Talmudic subjects.Bibliography: Eisenstadt-Wiener,...