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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
TEMESVAR – Hungarian city. The oldest gravestone in the Jewish cemetery is dated 1636, and was erected in memory of Azriel Assach of Salonica. Between 1552 and 1716 large numbers of Spanish Jews settled in Temesvar, where the Turkish...
TEMPLER, BERNHARD – Austrian theologian; born at Brzesko, Galicia, May 1, 1865; educated at the University and the Bet ha-Midrash of Vienna, and at the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums at Berlin. At the age of fifteen he began...
TENCZER, PAUL – Hungarian author; born at Nagy Bejom April 11, 1836; died at Budapest Feb. 6, 1905. He was educated at Keszthely and in Budapest, where he studied law. In 1861 he was one of the founders of the society for the naturalization and...
TE'OMIM (ARYEH JUDAH), LÖB BEN MOSES – Rabbi and scholar of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; lived in Pinczow, and later in Plotzk. He was the author of the following works: "Ya'alat Ḥen" (Zolkiev, 1802), sermons on different parashiyyot; "Geṭ Meḳushshar"...
THOMAS, EMILE (EMIL TOBIAS) – German actor; born at Berlin Nov. 24, 1836. Thomas has had a most varied career. He made his début in 1852 with the company of Pitterlin, which traversed the Erzgebirge, Saxony. The plays were ultrasensational—"Der Wahnsinnige,"...
TEPLITZ – Town in northern Bohemia, about 46 miles northwest of Prague. The earliest documentary evidence of the presence of Jews there is dated 1414; but the earliest Jewish source referring to them belongs to the end of the sixteenth...
TOBIAH BEN ELIEZER – A Bulgarian. Talmudist and poet of the eleventh century; author of the "Leḳaḥ Ṭob" or "Pesiḳta Zuṭarta," a midrashic commentary on the Pentateuch and the Five Megillot. Zunz ("G. V." pp. 293 et seq.) inferred from Tobiah's...
TERONGI, RAPHAEL BENITO – Martyr. He, his teacher Raphael Valls, and his sister Catalina Terongi were together publicly burned as "Judios impenitentes" at the auto da fé held in Palma, Majorca, May 6, 1691. As soon as the victims beheld the flames they...
TERQUEM, OLRY – French mathematician; born at Metz June 16, 1782; died at Paris May 6, 1862. In 1801 he began his studies at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, where he became assistant professor in mathematics in 1803. In the following year,...
TERUEL – City of Aragon. In the Middle Ages it possessed a prominent Jewish community, which enjoyed several privileges, and which paid in the fourteenth century a yearly tax of 300 sueldos. Its members were engaged in commerce and...
TEWELES, HEINRICH – Austrian dramatist; born at Prague Nov. 13, 1856. He made his début in 1881 with a drama entitled "Die Schauspielerin." His other works are: "Kampf um die Sprache," 1884; "Die Armen," novel, 1885; "Presse und Staat," 1886;...
THEODOR, JULIUS (JUDAH) – German rabbi; born Dec. 28, 1849, at Schmalleningken, East Prussia. He studied philosophy and Orientalia at the University of Breslau and rabbinica at the Jewish theological seminary in the same city. After receiving from...
THEODORA – Queen of Bulgaria from 1335 to 1355; born at Tirnova la Grande, capital of the ancient kingdom of Bulgaria, of a family of Byzantine Jews, from whom she received the Greek name of Theodora, although she was called also Sarah and...
THESSALY – Province of northern Greece, on the Ægean Sea. It numbered Jews among its inhabitants at a very early date, although those that now (1905) live there speak Spanish and claim to be descendants of refugees who emigrated from...
THORN – Town of West Prussia, founded in 1233 by the Knights of the Teutonic Order. Jews were not permitted to dwell in Thorn while the knights held sway; and after the Polish government took possession of the town, in 1453, they were...
THORNS AND THISTLES – The desert flora of Palestine is unusually rich in thorns and thistles, containing a whole series of acanthaceous shrubs and various thistles, including Acanthus, Carduus (thistle), Centaurea Calcitrapa (star-thistle), Cirsium...
THUNDER – The sound that follows lightning. The proper Hebrew term for it is (Ps. lxxvii. 19 et passim; Job xxvi. 14; Isa. xxix. 6), but it is often rendered in the Bible by , plural (= "voice," "voices"), the singular being always...
TIETZ, HERMANN – German rabbi; born at Birnbaum, Posen, Germany, Sept. 3, 1834, and educatedat the University of Berlin (Ph. D. Halle). He was rabbi in Schrimm, and since 1888 he has been a "Stiftrabbiner" and teacher in the bet ha-midrash at...
TIGRIS – One of the four streams mentioned in Gen. ii. 14 as watering the Garden of Eden, and described, from the standpoint of Palestine, as flowing "in front of Assyria" (R. V.). The Tigris has its source in several springs in Mount...
TIKTIN – A Silesian family of rabbis originating from Tiktin, a town in Poland.Abraham ben Gedaliah Tiktin: German rabbi; born at Schwersenz, Posen; died at Breslau Dec. 27, 1820. In 1811 he was appointed rabbi at Glogau, and five years...
TIKTIN – A Silesian family of rabbis originating from Tiktin, a town in Poland.Abraham ben Gedaliah Tiktin: German rabbi; born at Schwersenz, Posen; died at Breslau Dec. 27, 1820. In 1811 he was appointed rabbi at Glogau, and five years...
TIRADO, JACOB – Convert to Judaism in Amsterdam in the sixteenth century; died in Jerusalem. With several Maranos he sailed from Portugal in a vessel which was driven out of its course to Emden in East Friesland. Following the advice of Rabbi...
TISZA-ESZLAR AFFAIR – Origin of the Accusation. Accusation of ritual murder brought against the Jews of Tisza-Eszlar, a Hungarian town situated on the Theiss. On April 1, 1882, Esther Solymosi, a Christian peasant girl fourteen years old, servant in...
TODESCO, HERMANN – Austrian financier and philanthropist; born at Presburg 1792; died there Nov. 23, 1844. At first engaging in the silk trade, he later won fame and wealth in the cotton business; and he established in Marienthal, near Vienna, one...
TODROS OF BEAUCAIRE – 1 (called Ha-Ḳaẓin). One of the chief poets of the second half of the thirteenth century; resided in Montpellier. In 1277 he was one of the five representatives of theJewish community to which James II. of Aragon granted a...