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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
TODROS OF CAVAILLON – French physician of the latter part of the fourteenth century, who flourished, according to Carmoly, about 1375. He was the author of a treatise entitled "Sha'are ha-Harkabot" (MSS. Paris, No. 1191, 1; Cat. p. 219), a sort of...
TODROS BEN MOSES YOM-ṬOB – French physician; flourished at Cavaillon in the second half of the fourteenth century; identified by Steinschneider with Todros of Cavaillon. In 1394 he prepared a Hebrew translation of a Latin treatise on fever by Johanan ibn...
TOMASHOV, JACOB B. SIMEON – Polish rabbi of the seventeenth century. His father is styled "ha-Ḳadosh," a term generally given to a martyr, so that Simeon may have been martyred during the massacres instigated by Chmielnicki. Jacob was probably rabbi at...
TORRE, LELIO (HILLEL) DELLA – Italian rabbi and educator; born in Cuneo, Piedmont, Jan. 11, 1805; died in Padua July 9, 1871. His father, Solomon Jehiel Raphael ha-Kohen, died in 1807; and Lelio was brought up by his uncle Sabbatai Elhanan Treves, a rabbi in...
TORTOSA – City in Catalonia where Jews lived and owned land as early as the Roman period. This Jewish community was one of the richest in the country in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and had certain ancient privileges which...
TOURS – Capital of the department of Indre-et-Loire, France. Since the first half of the sixth century Jews have lived either in the city or in its environs, especially in Civray. About the year 580 a Jewish tax-gatherer of Tours named...
TOUL – Capital of an arrondissement in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, France, with a Jewish population dating from the thirteenth century. Among the scholars who were once residents of this city may be mentioned R. Eliezer of...
TOULON – Capital of an arrondissement in the department of the Var, France. Like most of the principal cities of Provence, Toulon contained a Jewish community in medieval times; and under the counts of Provence the Jews of the city fared...
TOULOUSE – Capital of the department of Haute-Garonne, France, where a large number of Jews lived as early as the beginning of the eighth century. In conformity with an old custom, and in punishment for some fancied crime, one of their...
TRYPHON – 1. Son of Theudion; one of the four envoys sent by the Jews in 45 C.E. to petition Emperor Claudius that the high-priestly vestments might remain in the possession of the Jews (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 1, §§ 1-2; see also...
TRADITIONS – Doctrines and sayings transmitted from father to son by word of mouth, and thus preserved among the people. Such traditions constitute a large part of Jewish oral teachings (see Oral Law); and many halakic doctrines seek to...
TRAJAN – Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Like Vespasian, Titus, and Hadrian, he is frequently mentioned by Jewish writers; and he exercised a profound influence upon the history of the Jews throughout the Babylonia, Palestine, and...
TRANSLITERATION – Into Hebrew: The Greek and Latin words which entered into the language of the Hebrews are transcribed in the Talmud, Midrash, and Targum according to purely phonetic principles, their etymologies being entirely disregarded....
TRANSYLVANIA – A district which has formed a part of Hungary since 1867. According to one tradition, the first Jewish settlers of this region were subjects of the Persian king Xerxes, who fled thither after the battle of Salamis; while another...
TRAUBE, LUDWIG – German physician and medical author; born at Ratibor, Prussian Silesia, Jan. 18, 1818; died at Berlin April 11, 1876; elder brother of Moritz Traube. He studied at the gymnasium of his native town and the universities of...
TRAVELERS – Jews early became accustomed to wandering, either by compulsion, as in the Exile and in the Diaspora, or through natural dispersion. The spreading out of the Jewish race in the first and second centuries indicated a willingness...
TREBITSCH, NEHEMIAH (MENAHEM NAHUM) – Austrian rabbi; born at Prague Aug. 14, 1779; died there July 4, 1842. He was a son of Selig Trebitsch, ḥazzan at the Altneuschule, and he received a thorough Talmudical training at the yeshibah of Jacob Günsberg. Upon the...
TRENEL, ISAAC – French rabbi; born at Metz Dec. 28, 1822; died at Paris in 1890. He studied at Marmoutier under his uncle Jacob Haguenauer, a famous Talmudist, and later at Merzig, Prussia, under the Talmudist Moïse Lévy, known also as R. Mochè...
TREVES – Family which derived its name from the Prussian city of Treves, famous for its prominentmen. No other family can boast such a continuous line of scholars as this one, branches of which have been known under the names Treves,...
TREVES – Family which derived its name from the Prussian city of Treves, famous for its prominentmen. No other family can boast such a continuous line of scholars as this one, branches of which have been known under the names Treves,...
TREVES – Family which derived its name from the Prussian city of Treves, famous for its prominentmen. No other family can boast such a continuous line of scholars as this one, branches of which have been known under the names Treves,...
TREVES – Family which derived its name from the Prussian city of Treves, famous for its prominentmen. No other family can boast such a continuous line of scholars as this one, branches of which have been known under the names Treves,...
TREVES – Family which derived its name from the Prussian city of Treves, famous for its prominentmen. No other family can boast such a continuous line of scholars as this one, branches of which have been known under the names Treves,...
TREVES – Family which derived its name from the Prussian city of Treves, famous for its prominentmen. No other family can boast such a continuous line of scholars as this one, branches of which have been known under the names Treves,...
TREVES – Family which derived its name from the Prussian city of Treves, famous for its prominentmen. No other family can boast such a continuous line of scholars as this one, branches of which have been known under the names Treves,...