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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
TURTELTAUB, WILHELM – Austrian physician and poet; born at Rzeszow, Galicia, March 25, 1816. At the age of twelve he wrote a comedy in imitation of Kotzebue's "Sorgen Ohne Noth." In 1830 he entered the University of Vienna to study medicine (M.D....
TYRNAU – Manufacturing town of western Hungary. It was the scene of two martyrdoms of Jews: the first, in 1494, when fourteen men and two women gave up their innocent lives, as a manuscript dirge of the Cracow community recounts; the...
TYROL – Crownland of Austria. The earliest documents referring to its Jews date from thebeginning of the fourteenth century. The statement, found in the "Privilegium Ecclesiæ S. Stephani" in Rendena (Hormayr, "Gesch. Tirols," 1808,...
ULLMANN, ALEXANDER DE ERÉNY – Hungarian deputy and political economist; born at Budapest Feb. 18, 1850; died there 1897; son of Karl Ullmann (b. 1809; d. 1880), founder of the first Hungarian insurance company, and vice-president of the Bank of Commerce at...
ULLMANN, SHALOM – Hungarian Talmudist; flourished in the beginning of the nineteenth century; officiated as rabbi in Fürth, and later at Boldogasszony (Frankirchen), a small place in the county of Wieselburg. He was the author of "Dibre Rash"...
ULMANN, BENJAMIN – French historical painter; born at Blotzheim, Alsace, May 24, 1829; died at Paris Feb. 24, 1884. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Drölling and Picot, and in 1859 won the Prix de Rome.Of his paintings may be...
ULMANN, SALOMON – French rabbi; born at Zabern, Alsace, Feb. 25, 1806; died at Paris May 5, 1865. He commenced his rabbinical studies at Strasburg under Moïse Bloch (better known as Rabbi Mosche Utenheim), and was the first pupil enrolled at the...
UNGER, EPHRAIM SOLOMON – German educator and writer; born at Coswig-on-the-Elbe March 8, 1789; died Nov. 1, 1870. He studied philosophy, mathematics, and natural science at the University of Erfurt, and from 1810 to 1816 was privat-docent in mathematics...
UNGER, JOACHIM JACOB – Austrian rabbi; born at Homona, Hungary, Nov. 25, 1826; studied at the University of Berlin (Ph.D. 1859), and was appointed rabbi of Iglau, Moravia, in 1860. He is the author of several works, of which the following may be...
UNGER, JOSEPH – Austrian jurist and statesman; born in Vienna July 2, 1828. Having studied law at the university of his native city, he in 1850 was appointed assistant librarian, and in 1852 privat-docent, at his alma mater. The following year...
UNGER, MANASSE – German art critic; born in Coswig-on-the-Elbe March 14, 1802; died at Berlin May 17, 1868. When he was only four years of age his parents moved to Erfurt, where he received his first instruction in the art of sketching, and...
UNNA, PAUL GERSON – German physician and dermatologist; born at Hamburg Sept. 8, 1850; son of Moritz Adolph Unna; educated at the universities of Heidelberg, Leipsic, and Strasburg (M.D. 1875). He was severely wounded in the Franco-Prussian war, in...
URIEL – Name of an archangel. Of the four chief angels, Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel, who preside over the four quarters of the globe (Jensen, "Kosmologie der Babylonier," p. 163), and who are frequently grouped together, Uriel...
URY, ADOLPHE (SIMON) – Alsatian rabbi; born at Niederbronn, Lower Alsace, June 14, 1849. He was educated at the lyceum of Strasburg and the rabbinical seminary in Paris, receiving the degrees of doctor and chief rabbi, his thesis being "Les Arts et...
UZÈS – Town of France, in the department of Gard, about 15 miles north-northeast of Nîmes. Jews were settled there as early as the fifth century. St. Ferréol, Bishop of Uzès, admitted them to his table and enjoyed their friendship. On...
VALABRÈGUE, ALBIN – French dramatist; born at Carpentras, Vaucluse, Dec. 17, 1853. He is one of the most prolific of modern French dramatists, producing about two plays a year and in addition acting as dramatic critic of the Paris "L'Illustration."...
VALABRÈGUE, MARDOCHEE-GEORGES – French general; born at Carpentras, Vaucluse, Sept. 20, 1852. He was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole d'Application de l'Artillerie et du Génie; and, after reaching the rank of captain, he studied at the Ecole...
VALENCIA – James I. Makes Presents to the Jews. Capital of the former kingdom of the same name. During the dominion of the Moors, Valencia had a Jewish community eminent for its size and wealth. When James I. of Aragon made his entry into...
VALENTIN, GABRIEL GUSTAV – German physiologist; born at Breslau July, 1810; died at Bern, Switzerland, May 24, 1883. He was educated at the University of Breslau (M.D. 1832), and established himself as a physician in that city. In 1835 he received the...
VALERIO, SAMUEL BEN JUDAH – Physician and author who lived in the Grecian Archipelago in the second half of the sixteenth century. He wrote the following works: "Yad ha-Melek," a commentary on the Book of Esther, completed at Corfu on the 6th of Feb.,...
VALI (VALLE), MOSES DAVID – Italian rabbi and physician; born at Padua; died there 1777. He was a cabalistic scholar of repute, and lectured before the Paduan association known as "Mebaḳeshe Adonai," in company with the two noted scholars Israel Hezekiah...
VALLADOLID – Former residence of the kings of Castile and Spain; noteworthy for the numerous assemblies of the Cortes which were held there and which passed anti-Jewish laws. The city had a large Jewish community, which, together with the...
VALLS, RAPHAEL – Spanish Marano; burned at the stake by the Inquisition at Palma, Majorca, on May 6, 1691, as the "rabbi" of the Chuetas, as were also his pupil, Raphael Terongi, and the latter's sister, Catalina Terongi, who adhered to Judaism....
VÁMBÉRY, ARMINIUS – Hungarian traveler and Orientalist; born at Duna-Szerdahely, on the island of Schütt, near Presburg, March 19, 1832. He was apprenticed at the age of twelve to a ladies' dressmaker; but after becoming tutor to the son of the...
VÁZSONYI, WILHELM – Hungarian publicist and deputy; born at Sümegh (Sümeg) 1868. He was educated at Budapest, where his remarkable eloquence made him the leader of all student movements during his university career. After he had completed his...