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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
ZADOK GAON – Gaon of Sura from 820 to 821. On the basis of a responsum quoted in the "Sha'are Ẓedeḳ" (iv. 311, No. 2), Weiss refers to him as follows in his "Dor": "If a case was brought before him and he found the defendant guilty, but was...
ZAMZAM – A sacred well in the mosque of Mecca; identified by Islamitic legend with the spring from which Hagar and Ishmael drank (Gen. xvi. 14; see Abraham ibn Ezra's commentary ad loc. and Hagar in Arabic Literature). Some Mohammedan...
ZAPPERT, BRUNO – Austrian dramatist and journalist; born in Vienna Jan. 28, 1845; died there Jan. 31, 1892. The Zappert family, many members of which have gained prominence as merchants, originally settled in Bohemia, and spread thence to...
ZAPPERT, GEORGE – Hungarian historian and archeologist; born in Alt-Ofen Dec. 7, 1806; died in Vienna Nov. 23, 1859. The son of well-to-do parents, Zappert was educated at the Pesth gymnasium and at the University of Vienna. He began the study of...
ZAPPERT, ISRAEL L. – Austrian philanthropist; elder brother of George and grandfather of Bruno Zappert; born at Prague in 1795; died there in 1865. He was a grandson of Wolf Zappert, who was the founder of the family, and who was twice court...
ẒARIFA – Name of a goddess mentioned in a single passage of the Talmud ('Ab. Zarah 12a) as having been worshiped at Ashkelon. Kohut, Levy, and other Jewish lexicographers identify her with Serapis; but the Hebrew spelling would seem to...
ZARZAL, ABRAHAM IBN – Spanish physician and astronomer; flourished in the first half of the fourteenth century at the court of the Nasserites in Granada, where a certain Pharez ben Abraham ibn Zarzal, who may have been his father, was physician in...
ZARZAL, MOSES IBN – Spanish physician and poet; physician in ordinary to Henry III. of Castile; flourished in the latter half of the fourteenth and the first part of the fifteenth century; son of Abraham ibn Zarzal. On March 6, 1405, he was at...
ZECHARIAH IBN SA'ID AL-YAMANI – Author of an Arabic version of the "Yosippon"; flourished in the tenth or eleventh century. His version exists in three recensions: (1) in several manuscripts which yet await thorough examination; (2) an abbreviated text printed...
ZEDNER, JOSEPH – German bibliographer and librarian; born at Gross-Glogau Feb. 10, 1804; died at Berlin Oct. 10, 1871. After completing hiseducation, he acted as teacher in the Jewish school in Strelitz (Mecklenburg), where the famous German...
ZEISEL, SIMON – Austrian chemist; born at Lomnitz, Moravia, April 11, 1854; educated at the German gymnasium of Brünn and at the University of Vienna (Ph.D. 1879). He established himself as privat-docent for chemistry at the same university in...
ZEISSL, HERMANN VON – Austrian dermatologist; born at Vierzighuben near Zwittau, Moravia, Sept. 22, 1817; died at Vienna Sept. 23, 1884; educated at the University of Vienna (M.D. 1846). In 1846 he was appointed assistant in the ophthalmological,...
ZEKOR BERIT – A poem by Gershom ben Judah (960-1040), the "Light of the Exile" (Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p. 239); it is chanted in the Seliḥot of the Northern rituals as the central hymn of the early penitential prayers on the eve of New-Year,...
ZELMAN, SAMUELE VITA – ZEKOR BERIT Austro-Italian poet; born at Triest in 1808; died there in 1885. He was educated at the rabbinical college of Padua, where he was the favorite pupil of Samuel David Luzzatto. He was the author of the following works:...
ZENOBIA SEPTIMIA – Empress of Palmyra; regent (from 267 to 273) for her minor son Vollabathus, who had been appointed imperator by the emperor Aurelian. Zenobia appears to have been friendly to the Jews; and according to some accounts, which,...
ZERFFI, GUSTAV – Hungarian journalist and revolutionist; born in Hungary about 1820. He was the author of "Wiener Lichtbilder und Schattenspiele," with twelve caricatures (Vienna, 1848); and as editor of "Der Ungar" in 1848, he became...
ZIEGLER, IGNAZ – Austrian rabbi; born at Also-Kubin, Hungary, Sept. 29, 1861; educated at the Rabbinical Seminary and at the University of Budapest (Ph.D. 1888). Immediately after his graduation he was called to the rabbinate of Carlsbad, a...
ZILZER, ANTAL (ANTON) – Hungarian painter; born at Budapest in 1861. He was a pupil of Rauscher, Gregusz, and Szekely at the national model school of design, and later studied at the Munich Academy under Raupp, Hackl, Seitz, and Herterich, completing...
ZIMMERN, HELEN – German authoress; born at Hamburg March 25, 1846. She went to England at an early age, and resided there till 1887, when she removed to Florence. She has written lives of Schopenhauer (1873), Maria Edgeworth (1883), and Sir...
ZIPSER, MAIER – Hungarian rabbi; born at Balassa-Gyarmath Aug. 14, 1815; died at Rechnitz Dec. 10, 1869. He studied in various yeshibot, among his teachers being Wolf Boskowitz and Maier Eisenstadt; and he acquired a secular education partly...
ZIRNDORF, HEINRICH – German poet and rabbinical scholar; born at Fürth, Bavaria, May 7, 1829; died at Cincinnati, Ohio, Dec. 17, 1893; educated privately. His parents intended him for a commercial career, and for a short time he was employed as a...
ZOLA, EMILE – His Novels. French novelist; born in Paris April 2, 1840; died there Sept. 29, 1902. It was only in his last years, when anti-Semitism had reached an acute stage in France, that he took up the cause of the Jewish community...
ZUCKER, ALFRED – Chemist and manufacturer of Dresden, Germany; born Aug. 17, 1871, in Uffenheim, Bavaria. He studied pharmacy and chemistry at the universities of Würzburg and Erlangen; and while he was still a student the Württemberg...
ZUCKER, MARCUS – German librarian and author; born May 1, 1841. He was for some time chief librarian at the University of Erlangen, and has made a specialty of the history of art. Among his writings are: "Dürers Stellung zur Reformation" (1886);...
ZUCKERKANDL, EMIL – Austrian anatomist; born at Raab, Hungary, in 1849; educated at the University of Vienna (M.D. 1874). In 1875 he became privat-docent of anatomy at the Universityof Utrecht, and he was appointed assistant professor at the...