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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
CANTOR, GEORG – German mathematician; born at St. Petersburg, Russia, March 3, 1845. He is distantly related to Moritz Cantor. He was only eleven years old when he went to Germany, where he received his high-school and university education. In...
CANTOR, MORITZ – German historian of mathematics; born at Mannheim, Germany, on Aug. 23, 1829. He comes of a family that emigrated to Holland from Portugal, another branch of the same house having established itself in Russia, the land of Georg...
CAPADOCE, ABRAHAM – Convert to Christianity; born at Amsterdam 1795; died there Dec. 16, 1874. His parents, who were Portuguese Jews, gave him an entirely secular education, wishing him to study medicine. After having completed his medical studies...
CAPEFIGUE, JEAN-BAPTISTE HONORÉ-RAYMOND – French Christian publicist and historian; born at Marseilles 1802; died at Paris Dec. 23, 1872. Among many historical works, Capefigue wrote a history of the Jews, entitled "Histoire Philosophique des Juifs Depuis la Décadence...
CARASSO, DAVID SAMUEL – Jewish traveler; born at Salonica, Turkey. On the occasion of a business trip to Yemen, Arabia, in 1874, he studied the situation of the Jews of that region, and published an account of his travels in a volume written in...
CARCASSONNE, ADOLPHE JOSEPH – French poet; born at Marseilles, 1826; died Sept. 22, 1891. His principal works are: (1) "Premières Lueurs," a selection of poems (1852); (2) "Le Jugement de Déea," opera in four acts (1860); (3) "La Fille du Franc-Juge," drama...
CARCASSONNE, DAVID – French physician; born Dec. 20, 1789, at Remoulins, a small town in the Gard department, France; died Nov. 15, 1861, at Nîmes. He was the son of a purveyor to the army of Napoleon I., and having joined the Grande Armée as...
CARCASSONNE, LÉON – French physician, municipal councilor, and member of the Academy of Nîmes. Son of David Carcassonne; died at Marseilles May 7, 1894. He was the author of the following works: (1) "Questions sur Diverses Branches des Sciences...
CARMOLY, ELIAKIM – Leaves Ministry for Literature. French scholar; born at Sulz (then in the French department of the Upper Rhine) August 5, 1802; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main Feb. 15, 1875. His real name was Goschel David Behr (or Baer); the...
CARMONA – A family of Jewish financiers prominent in Turkey at the beginning of the nineteenth century. It is of Spanish origin, and probably came from the city of the same name in Andalusia. The earliest known member was Behor Carmona,...
CARO, EZEKIEL – German rabbi and historian; born Nov. 26, 1844, at Pinne, near Posen; son of the exegete and homiletic writer Joseph Ḥayyim Caro, rabbi at Wloclawek. He attended the gymnasium at Bromberg, the Jewish theological seminary and the...
CARO, GEORG MARTIN – Lecturer on history at the University of Zurich, Switzerland; born Nov. 28, 1867, at Glogau, Prussia. Caro received his education at the gymnasium of his native place and at different German universities, being finally graduated...
CARO, JACOB – German historian; born at Gnesen, province of Posen, Prussia, Feb. 2, 1836; son of Joseph Ḥayyim Caro. After several years of diligent study at the universities of Berlin and Leipsic, he attracted considerable attention by his...
CARPI, LEONE – Italian political economist; born 1820 at Bologna, Italy. He was the first deputy elected to the Italian Parliament by the city of Ferrara. Carpi, on the expiration of his term, divided his time between Bologna and Rome, where...
CARVALLO, JULES – French engineer; born at Talence, Gironde, France, in 1820. After having graduated with the highest honors at the Ecole Polytechnique and Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées, he was attached as engineer to the Southern Railroad; and...
CASSEL, PAULUS STEPHANUS (SELIG) – Convert to Christianity and missionary to the Jews; born Feb. 27, 1821, in Gross-Glogau, Silesia; died Dec. 23, 1892, in Friedenau, near Berlin. His father was a sculptor, and his brother David was docent at the Berlin...
CASSEL, DAVID – German historian and theologian; born March 7, 1818, at Gross-Glogau, Silesia, Prussia, where he graduated from the gymnasium; died Jan. 22, 1893, in Berlin. Cassel's name is intimately connected with the founders of Jewish...
CASSEL, HARTWIG – Journalist and chess editor; born Nov. 2, 1850, at Konitz, West Prussia, where his father, Dr. Aaron Cassel, was rabbi. He was educated at the Real-Gymnasium in Landsberg on-the-Warta, and in 1879 went to England, where he began...
CASSEL, JACOB – German physician; born at Schwerin-on-the-Warta, province of Posen, Prussia, May 25, 1859. He was educated at the universities of Berlin and Leipsic, from which latter place he was graduated as doctor of medicine in 1883. The...
CASSUTO, JUDAH – azan of the Portuguese-Jewish community of Hamburg; born in Amsterdam 1808; died at Hamburg March 10, 1893. In 1827 he was elected ḥazan of the Portuguese-Jewish community, a post which he held until his death. Cassuto was not...
CASTELLI, DAVID – Italian scholar; born at Leghorn, Tuscany, Dec. 30, 1836; died 1901. He was educated at the rabbinical college of Leghorn, and from 1857 to 1863 was teacher of Hebrew and Italian in the Jewish schools of that city; then he...
CASTRO, ADOLF DE – Spanish historian; member of the Academia de la Historia of Madrid; lived in Cadiz; died there Oct., 1898. He wrote the first short history of the Jews in Spain, based on care ful studies; and this was so impartial and...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...
CATTANEO, CARLO – Italian Christian jurisconsult; born in Milan June 15, 1801; died at Castagnole, near Lugano, Feb. 5, 1869. Although Cattaneo was not favorably inclined toward the Jews, he vehemently protested against the oppressive laws to...