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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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A. Porter,

(Office Editor), Formerly Associate Editor of "The Forum," New York; Revising Editor of "Standard Cyclopedia"; New York City.

Contributions:
HORWITZ, BERNARD – Chess player and writer on chess; born 1809 in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg; died in London 1885. A chess pupil of Mendheim in Berlin, he became known as one of the "Pleiades," a name given to the seven leaders of the new...
JANOWSKI, DAVID – Russian chess-player; born May 25, 1868, in Russian Poland. He learned to play chess as a child, but did not make a serious study of the game until about 1886, when he removed to Paris, where he still (1904) resides. In...
JUDD, MAX – American manufacturer, consul-general, and chess-player; born Dec. 27, 1851, at Cracow, Austria; emigrated to the United States when eleven years old. From 1864 to 1867 he lived in Washington, D. C., and, on becoming an American...
KOLISCH, BARON IGNAZ VON – Hungarian merchant, journalist, and chess-master; born at Presburg April 6, 1837; died at Vienna April 30, 1889. Both in business and as a chess-player he was eminently successful. He founded the Wiener Börse-Syndikatskasse in...
LASKER, EMANUEL – Chess champion of the world; born Dec. 24, 1868, at Berlinchen, Germany; educated at the universities of Berlin, Göttingen, and Heidelberg, and took his degree of Ph.D. at the University of Erlangen. In 1882 he defeated several...
LIPSCHUTZ, SOLOMON – American chess-player; born at Ungvar, Hungary, July 4, 1863. At the age of seventeen he emigrated to New York, where he soon became known in chess circles. In 1883 he was chosen as one of a team to represent New York in a match...
LÖWENTHAL, JOHANN JACOB – Hungarian chess-master; born July, 1810, in Budapest; died at St. Leonard's-on-Sea, England, July 20, 1876. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native city, and received a civil appointment under the administration of Louis...
MIESES – A family of German and Austrian scholars of the nineteenth century, of which the following are prominent members:Fabius Mieses: Galician litterateur and philosopher; born at Brody Oct. 31, 1824; died at Leipsic Oct. 10, 1898. Up...
PARDO – A family deriving its name from Prado in Castile. Its members have mostly distinguished themselves in the Levant. Among them may be mentioned:David Pardo: Rabbinical commentator and liturgical poet; born at Venice March 29,...
RICE, ISAAC LEOPOLD – American lawyer, author, and chess-player; born Feb. 22, 1850, at Wachenheim in the Rhenish Palatinate. When six years of age he was taken by his mother to the United States. Rice was educated at the Central High School in...
RICE, JOSEPH MAYER – American physician and editor; born May 27, 1857, at Philadelphia, Pa. He was educated at the public schools of Philadelphia and New York, at the College of the City of New York, and at the College of Physicians and Surgeons,...
RÖDER, MARTIN – German composer and conductor; born in Berlin April 7, 1851; died at Boston, Mass., June 7, 1895; studied at the Königliche Hochschule für Musik in his native city. From 1873 to 1880 Röder was chorus-master at the Teatro dal...
ROSENTHAL, SAMUEL – Chess - master; born 1838 in Suwalki, Russian Poland; died in Paris Sept. 25, 1902. After the last Polish revolution he fled to Paris (1864), where he devoted himself to a study of the game, and became so rapidly proficient in...
RUBINSTEIN, NIKOLAI (NICHOLAS) – Russian pianist; born in Moscow June 2, 1835; died in Paris March 23, 1881; brother of Anton Rubinstein. He received his early instruction from his mother, by whom he and his brother were taken to Berlin in 1844. There he...
SCHIFFERS, EMANUEL – Russian chess master; born of German parents at St. Petersburg May 4, 1850; died there Dec. 12, 1904. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native city, studying in the classical, physical, and mathematical faculties. In 1871...
STEINITZ, WILHELM – Chess champion of the world from 1866 to 1894; born at Prague, Bohemia, May 17, 1836; died, insane, on Wards Island, New York, June 22, 1900. Destined for the rabbinate, he studied Talmud diligently, but his fondness for...
STRAUS, LUDWIG – Hungarian violinist; born at Presburg March 28, 1835; studied under Hellmesberger and Joseph Böhm (violin), and under Preyer and Nottebohm (composition). His first public performance took place at Vienna in June, 1850. He made...
TARRASCH, SIEGBERT – German physician and chess-master; born at Breslau March 5, 1862; studied medicine at the universities of Berlin, Halle, and Nuremberg, in which last-named city he engaged in practise as a physician. Tarrasch has been one of the...
WEISS, MAX – Hungarian chess-player; born July 21, 1857, at Szered on the Waag. Removing to Vienna, he studied mathematics and physics at the university, and afterward taught those subjects. Having, however, learned to play chess in his...
WINAWER, SIMON – Russian chess-player; born in Warsaw 1839. In 1867 he was in Paris; and while watching some games at the Café de la Régence in that city he decided to enter a tournament to be held there. To the surprise of every one he gained...
ZUKERTORT, JOHANNES HERMANN – Chess-player and physician; born at Lublin, Russian Poland, Sept. 7, 1842; died in London June 20, 1888; son of a Jewish convert to Christianity who was a clergyman at Lublin. He was educated at the gymnasium of Breslau and at...