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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
FRANKFORT-ON-THE-ODER – Chief town of a district of the same name in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, and situated on the left bank of the River Oder. It is very likely that the fairs held in the city drew a number of Jews there at an early date....
FRAUENSCHUL – That part of the synagogue which is reserved for women, whether an annex, as in the Altneuschul of Prague and in the synagogue of Worms, or a gallery; the latter is generally in the rear of the building, on the west side, but...
FREDERICK II – King of Prussia; born 1712; reigned from 1740 till his death in 1786. He was not friendly to the Jews, although he issued a "Schutzjude" patent to Moses Mendelssohn in October, 1763.The "General-privilegium", 1750. During the...
FRIEDMANN, PAUL – German philanthropist; born at Berlin in the middle of the nineteenth century. Friedmann is of Jewish descent, and is connected with the family of Moses Mendelssohn. Much exercised over the fate of the Russian Jews after the...
FRIES, JAKOB FRIEDRICH – Christian writer against the Jews; born at Barby, Saxony, Aug. 23, 1773; died at Jena Aug. 10, 1843. In 1801 Fries lectured on philosophy at the University of Jena, and in 1805 was appointed professor of philosophy, and in 1812...
FULDA – District town, on the right shore of the River Fulda in the Prussian province Hessen-Cassel. The Jews settled at Fulda at an early period; a community existed there in the twelfth century. The district is chiefly known on...
FÜRTH – Early Settlements. City of Bavaria, Germany. On April 17, 1528, George the Pious, Margrave of Ansbach, permitted two Jews, Perman and Uriel Wolff, to settle under his protection at Fürth, which was in his territory; and in 1553...
GABBAI – A family the members of which were found in Spain in the fifteenth century, and in Italy and the Levant from the seventeenth onward.Abraham Gabbai (Ysidro): Ḥakam in Amsterdam, later in Surinam; died before 1757. He wrote a...
GAFFAREL (GAFFARELLUS), JACOB – French Christian rabbinical scholar; born at Mannes, Provence, 1601; died at Sigonce 1681. He devoted himself to the study of mysticism, especially of Hebrew cabalistic works, though his own in that field are unreliable. He...
GAGIN – Rabbinical family of Castilian origin which emigrated to Morocco in 1492, and in the eight eenth century to Palestine. The oldest known member of this family is Ḥayyim Gagin, who about 1492 left Castile and settled in Morocco....
GALANTE – Jewish family which flourished at the beginning of the sixteenth century in Rome, and the head of which, Mordecai, was a Spanish exile of the Angel family. His courteous manners won for him from the Roman nobles the surname...
GALANTE – Jewish family which flourished at the beginning of the sixteenth century in Rome, and the head of which, Mordecai, was a Spanish exile of the Angel family. His courteous manners won for him from the Roman nobles the surname...
GALICIA, Austria – Province of Austria; acquired at the partition of Poland, 1772, and which, except for some small territorial changes, has remained such since the Vienna Congress of 1815.Statistics. The census of 1900 showed the number of the...
GALINA, MOSES BEN ELIJAH – Greek scholar and translator; lived at Candia in the fifteenth century. His best known work is "Toledot Adam" (Constantinople, 1515), a treatise on chiromancy and physiognomy, drawn chiefly from 'Ali ibn 'Abbas' "Kamil...
GALIPAPA, ELIJAH – Rabbi of Rhodes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; probably born in Bulgaria. He emigrated to Palestine, but later removed to Rhodes. He was the author of "Yede Eliyahu," a work on the rabbinical institutions...
GALLIPOLI – Seaport town in European Turkey, at the northeast end of the Dardanelles and about 135 miles from Constantinople. It has a population of about 20,000, of whom 1,200 are Jews. The latter probably lived in Gallipoli from the first...
GANZFRIED, SOLOMON – Hungarian rabbi and author; born at Ungvar about 1800; died there July 30, 1886. He frequented the yeshibah of Hirsch Heller at Bonyhad (see Jew. Encyc. i. 472), and entered upon a business career first at Homona, then at...
GARMISON, SAMUEL – Palestinian rabbi of the seventeenth century. He was a native of Salonica, and settled in Jerusalem, where he became rabbi. Of his numerous works only two, and these in manuscript, are extant: "Imre Binah," novellæ on Talmudic...
GARMON, NEHORAI – Rabbi of Tunis; poet; born at Tripoli about 1682; died at Tunis 1760. Garmon went to Tunis at twenty, and studied Talmud under Isaac Lombroso, whom he succeeded in the rabbinate. He was the author of "Yeter ha-Baz," novellæ on...
GATIGNO – Name (Spanish) of a family known in the fourteenth century, and still flourishing in Turkey; it is probably derived from the former French district of Gatines.Abraham Gatigno: Rabbi; born in Salonica; grandson of Abraham ben...
GAVISON, MEÏR – Egyptian scholar; flourished in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He was one of the rabbis at Cairo at the time of R. Jacob Castro, and was generally recognized as a great Talmudist. One volume of his responsa was seen in...
GAYA – Town in the Austrian province of Moravia. In official records Jews at Gaya are first mentioned toward the end of the seventeenth century; but there can be no doubt that a Jewish community existed there at the beginning of the...
GEBWEILER – Town of Alsace, in the consistorial district of Colmar and rabbinate of Sulz. The first document referring to its Jewish community dates from 1270, and is now in the archives of Colmar (L. 16, 6). The synagogue is first...
GEDALIAH (GADILIA), JUDAH BEN MOSES – Turkish rabbi; lived at Salonica in the sixteenth century. He was the author of (1) "Masoret Talmud Yerushalmi," an index to the Jerusalem Talmud (Constantinople, 1573); (2) a commentary to Midrash Rabbah (published in the...
GEDILIAH – Rabbi and Talmudist of the seventeenth century; came originally from Jerusalem, traveled in Italy, and lived in Leghorn; he was also rabbi in Verona. He corresponded with Samuel Aboab and Moses Zacuto, and was highly esteemed by...