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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
HOROWITZ, LAZAR (ELEAZAR) – Austrian rabbi; born at Flosz, Bavaria, 1803; died at Vöslau, near Vienna, June 11, 1868. He was the son of David Joshua Hoeshel, rabbi of Flosz, and grandson of Ẓebi Hirsch Horwitz, rabbi of Frankfort-on-the-Main. In 1822 his...
HOROWITZ (HORWITZ), PHINEHAS LEVI – Rabbi and Talmudic author; born in Poland about 1731; died in Frankfort-on-the-Main July 1, 1805. The descendant of a long line of rabbinical ancestors and the son of Rabbi Ẓebi Hirsch Horowitz of Czortkow, he received a...
HOROWITZ, SCHMELKE – Rabbi and cabalist; born in Poland 1726; died at Nikolsburg April 28, 1778; son of Hirsch Horowitz, rabbi of Czortkow, and brother of Phinehas Horowitz of Frankfort-on-the-Main. A disciple of Bär of Meseritz, he was a devotee of...
HOROWITZ, SHABBETHAI – Rabbi and Talmudist; born, probably in Ostrog, Volhynia, about 1590; died at Vienna April 12, 1660. He was the son of the cabalist Isaiah Horowitz, and at an early age married the daughter of the wealthy and scholarly Moses...
HOROWITZ, SHABBETHAI SHEFTEL – Cabalistic author: flourished in Prague in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. His father, named Akiba according to Steinschneider and Benjacob, not Jacob, was the son of Abraham Sheftels and the brother of Isaiah Horowitz....
HORWITZ, ẒEBI HIRSCH BEN PHINEHAS – Rabbi at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died thereSept. 8, 1817. He succeeded his father in the rabbinate of Frankfort in 1805. He was the author of the following works: "Maḥaneh Lewi," halakic novellœ, Offenbach, 1801; "Laḥme Todah,"...
HUMANISTS – Scholars who revived the culture of antiquity and the study of classical literature. The Renaissance, which heightened enthusiasm for the classics, began in Italy in the fifteenth century. From Italy humanism advanced to France,...
HUNGARY – Kingdom in central Europe, forming part of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. It is not definitely known when Jews first settled in Hungary. According to legend, King Decebalus of Dacia permitted the Jews who aided him in his war...
HUTTEN, ULRICH VON – Poet and satirist; born in the castle of Steckelberg, near Fulda, April 2l, 1488; died on the Isle of Ufnau, Lake Zurich, Aug. 29, 1523. As a humanist and one of the strongest champions of the Reformation wielding a sharp and...
ḤUẒPA – Aramaic word meaning "impudence," used frequently in the Talmud, in late rabbinical literature, and in common parlance. In Biblical Aramaic only the verb is found: it occurs twice (Dan. ii. 15, iii. 22) in the sense of "to be...
IBN EZRA, SOLOMON BEN MOSES – Rabbi of Venice; flourished in the second half of the seventeenth century. He was a disciple of Joseph Escapa and wrote a preface to, and edited the second part of, the latter's "Rosh Yosef" (Smyrna, 1659). He also edited:...
IBN GHAYYAT, ISAAC BEN JUDAH – Spanish rabbi, Biblical commentator, philosopher, and liturgical poet; born at Lucena in 1038 (Graetz cites 1030); died at Cordova in 1089; buried at Lucena. According to some authorities he was the teacher of Isaac Alfasi;...
IBN GHAYYAT, JUDAH BEN ISAAC – Spanish Talmudist and Hebrew poet of the twelfth century. He was the author of a Hebrew translation, from the Arabic, of a casuistic dissertation of Isaac Alfasi on a passage of Shebu'ot. As a poet Judah ibn Ghayyat was held in...
IGLAU – Mining-town in Moravia, Austria. While Jews settled at Brünn at a very early time, regulations concerning the Jews of Iglau are not found in the town records before 1250. Charles IV., while margrave of Moravia, sought to...
ILLOWY, BERNHARD – American rabbi; born at Kolin, Bohemia, 1814; died near Cincinnati, Ohio, June 22, 1871. He was descended from a family of Talmudists, his great-grandfather, Jacob Illowy, having been rabbi of Kolin. He studied in his native...
INNSBRUCK – Capital of Tyrol, Austria. While Jews settled throughout Tyrol, especially in the southern part, as early as the beginning of the fourteenth century, no mention of them at Innsbruck is met with until the end of the sixteenth...
INSTITUT ZUR FÖRDERUNG DER ISRAELITISCHEN LITERATUR – Society, founded by Ludwig Philippson, for the promotion of Jewish literature. The books published by the society were issued from Leipsic. On Feb. 12, 1855, an article by Philippson appeared in the "Allg. Zeit. des Jud.,"...
INSTITUTUM JUDAICUM – A special academic course for Protestant theologians who desire to prepare themselves for missionary work among Jews. The first of its kind was founded at the University of Halle, by Professor Callenberg in 1724. The great...
ISAAC BEN JUDAH LÖB – Rabbi at Offenbach in the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote "Be'er Yiẓḥaḳ," a commentary on the Hafṭarot, with the text (1729); "Me'irat 'Enayim," on the 613 Biblical precepts according to Maimonides (Fürth, 1730)....
ISRAEL – An Eastern family of rabbis and authors whose members dwelt in Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Rhodes, where they held important positions. It included:Abraham Israel: Rabbinical author; lived at Alexandria in the eighteenth century...
ISRAEL BRUNA BEN ḤAYYIM – German rabbi of the fifteenth century. He was at first rabbi of Brünn, and after the expulsion of the Jews from that city (1454) he settled at Ratisbon, where he opened a yeshibah against the wishes of Rabbi Anshel, who...
ISRAEL BEN MOSES HA-LEVI OF ZAMOSC – Galician scholar; born at Boberka at the beginning of the eighteenth century; died at Brody April, 1772. His father instructed him in Talmud and Hebrew literature; but Israel was more interested in philosophy and mathematics,...
ISRAELITISCHE ALLIANZ ZU WIEN – Society for the promotion of Jewish interests, founded at Vienna in 1872 by Joseph Ritter von Wertheimer, and modeled on the Alliance Israélite Universelle of Paris. Its establishment was directly due to the oppression of the...
ISTRIA – A small peninsula at the northern end of the Adriatic Sea, having about 320,000 inhabitants, of whom 285 are Jews. Ethnographically it is Italian, although politically it is under Austrian rule. At times it has included the city...
JACOB BEN ABRAHAM FAITUSI – Tunisian scholar; died at Algiers July, 1812. He settled in the later part of his life at Jerusalem, whence he was sent as a collector of alms to Italy and Algeria. He was the author of "Berit Ya'aḳob" (Leghorn, 1800), the...