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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
JACOB BEN JEREMIAH MATTITHIAH HA-LEVI – German translator of the seventeenth century. He translated into Judæo-German Abraham Jagel's "Leḳaḥ Ṭob" (Amsterdam, 1675; Wilmersdorf, 1714; Jesnitz, 1719) and the "Sefer ha-Yashar" (under the title "Tam we-Yashar";...
JACOB BEN NAPHTALI – Talmudist of Gnesen; flourished about 1650. His father was clerk of the Jewry in Great Poland ( ), and died in 1646. Jacob lost his fortune and books in a fire, and had to wander aimlessly about. In 1652 he published in...
JACOPO (JACOMO) SANSECONDO – Italian musician of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; born about 1468. Jacopo was an eminent violinist; his reputation is shown by the fact that in 1502 he played at the wedding of Lucrezia Borgia (Castiglioni, "Il...
JAFFA – City of Palestine and Mediterranean port, 35 miles northwest of Jerusalem. In ancient times it was Palestine's only point of communication with the Mediterranean. The cedars of Lebanon, destined for use in the construction of...
JANINA – City in Albania, European Turkey, on the lake of Janina.The community, which was flourishing in the middle of the nineteenth century, is now dwindling. It includes about 1,000 families in an entire population of 30,000...
JARE – Name of an ancient Italian family of scholars dating back to the fifteenth century.Giuseppe Jaré: Italian rabbi; born at Mantua, Dec., 1840. He was educated at the Istituto Rabbinico of Padua, being one of the last pupils of S....
JEDIDIAH (GOTTLIEB) BEN ABRAHAM ISRAEL – Galician preacher and Masorite; lived at Lemberg in the seventeenth century. He wrote: "Ahabat ha-Shem," fifty haggadic expositions on Deut. x. 12 (Cracow, 1641; Lublin, 1645); "Shir Yedidut," commentary on the Masorah, in four...
JEITELES (JEITTELES) – Austrian family of some importance, which can be traced back to the first half of the eighteenth century.Aaron (Andreas) Ludwig Joseph Jeitteles: Physician, poet, and writer; born at Prague Nov. 24, 1799; died at Graz June 17,...
JERUSALEM – Ancient: Cross-Sectional View of Jerusalem (West to East) as Seen from the South.(After Heyck, "Die Kreuzzüge.")Capital at first of all Israel, later of the kingdom of Judah; chief city of Palestine; situated in 31° 46′ 45″ N....
JOIGNY – Chief town in the department of the Yonne (the ancient Champagne), France, situated on the River Yonne. It had an important Jewish community, which flourished especially in the twelfth century. The "notables of Joigny" are...
JONATHAN LEVI ZION – Representative of the Jewish community of Frankfort-on-the-Main in its defense against the attacks of John Pfefferkorn. When the latter had obtained from EmperorMaximilian I. an edict ordering the confiscation of all Hebrew...
JOSEL (JOSELMANN, JOSELIN) OF ROSHEIM (JOSEPH BEN GERSHON LOANZ) – The great advocate ("shtadlan") of the German Jews during the reigns of the emperors Maximilian I. and Charles V.; born about 1480; died March, 1554, at Rosheim, Alsace.While still young he worked for the welfare of his...
JOSEPH II. – German emperor; born March 13, 1741; died Feb. 20, 1790, at Vienna. As German emperor his sovereignty was one in name only, but as ruler of Austria in succession to his mother, Maria Theresa (d. Nov. 29, 1780), his activities...
JOSEPH BEN DAVID HEILBRONN OF ESCHAU – German Masorite; lived at The Hague in the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Sefer Mebin Ḥidot" (Amsterdam, 1765), an important work on the Masorah, with an appendix containing a reply to a criticism of Asher Worms....
JOSEPH (JOSEL) BEN MOSES FRANKFURT – Dayyan at Fürth in the first half of the eighteenth century; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main; author of "Torat Yosef," masorah on the Pentateuch, with a commentary (Wilmersdorf, 1725).Bibliography: Fürst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 114;...
JOSEPH NAZIR BEN ḤAYYIM MOSES HA-LEVI – Palestinian rabbi; born at Hebron about 1650; died probably at Cairo 1719. He studied under Moses Galante and became rabbi at Hebron, from which community he was sent to Europe to solicit alms. Ẓebi Ashkenazi met him in this...
JOSEPH BEN SAMUEL IBN REY – Italian rabbi; died prematurely in Venice April 2, 1608. His epitaph (Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." iv. 1213) leaves it to be supposed that his surname was an equivalent for "son of a king." Wolf, however (ib.), spells it (= "Dei"). He...
JOST, ISAAC MARCUS – German historian; born at Bernburg Feb. 22, 1793; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main Nov. 22, 1860. Jost was one of a poor family of eleven, most of whom died in infancy; and when his father became blind, the duty of guiding him fell...
JOST LIEBMANN – Court Jew and court jeweler of Elector Frederick III. of Brandenburg (King Frederick I. of Prussia), and one of the elders of the Jewish congregation of Berlin; died 1701. As court Jew Jost succeeded Israel Aaron, whose widow he...
JUAN RODRIGO DE CASTEL-BRANCO – Portuguese physician; born at Castel-Branco, Portugal, in 1511;died at Salonica in 1568. He was a descendant of a Marano family called Ḥabib (= Amatus), and was brought up in the Jewish faith. After having graduated with honors...
JUDAH BEN JOSEPH PEREZ – Rabbi at Venice and Amsterdam in the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote: "Seder Ḳeri'e Mo'ed," cabalistic readings for the holy days (Venice, 1706); "Peraḥ Lebanon," sermons on the Pentateuch, to which he added...
JUDAH LEONE B. ISAAC SOMMO – Italian writer and dramatic critic and manager; died after 1591. A scion of the Portaleone family of Mantua, he lived first at Ferrara—where he was the friend of Azariah dei Rossi and became known as a scholar and skilful...
JUDAH LÖB BEN SIMEON – Rabbi and physician; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main about the middle of the seventeenth century; died at Mayence in 1714. He studied medicine and philosophy in Padua, where in 1674 he obtained the degree of doctor of medicine and...
JUDENHUT – Tall, conical hat, generally yellow, serving, in conformity with the decrees of the fourth Lateran Council (1215), as a distinguishing mark for the Jews. This council ("Mansi Concilia," xxii. 1055 et seq.; Grätz, "Gesch." 3d...
JUDENSCHREINSBUCH – Collection of deeds belonging to Jews in the St. Lawrence parish of the city of Cologne (Germany); since the thirteenth century they have been kept in a separate alcove; later on they were bound into book form. The Jewish deeds...