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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
JUDENSCHULE (Schola Judæorum) – The usual German expression for "synagogue" in medieval times. It seems to have been first used in the charter of Frederick II. of Austria, issued 1244 (Scherer, "Die Rechtsverhältnisse der Juden," etc., p. 182), wherein wilful...
JUDENSTÄTTIGKEIT – Archaic technical term for the legal status of a Jewish community, and as such identical with the more frequent term "Judenschutz." It seems to have been used only at Frankfort-on-the-Main and Worms. The first edition of the...
JÜDISCH-THEOLOGISCHES SEMINAR (FRÄNCKELSCHER STIFTUNG) – Institution in Breslau for the training of rabbis, founded under the will of Jonas Fränckel, and opened in 1854. Commercial Councilor ("Kommerzienrath") Jonas Fränckel, a descendant of a rabbinic family, and a very wealthy...
JÜDISCHHEIT – Medieval German expression for the Jewish community of a certain locality or of a whole country. Thus the gilds of Speyer in 1352, readmitting the Jews after their expulsion in 1349, speak of them as "Jüdischheit, die bi uns zu...
JULIUS III. (GIOVANNI MARIA DEL MONTE) – Two hundred and twenty-eighth pope; born at Rome 1487; elected pope Feb. 8, 1550;died March 22, 1555. Personally he was favorably inclined toward the Jews. He attached to his person a Jewish physician named Theodoro de...
JUMA-I-BALA – Turkish city on the Bulgarian frontier, four hours from Dubnitza. The community here dates from the middle of the eighteenth century, and must have been important and wealthy; for when the famous chief Pazvan-Oglu and his band...
JUNG-BUNZLAU – Town in northeastern Bohemia. Its Jewish community, one of the oldest in the province, was formerly one of the largest in Bohemia; it is first mentioned, under the name of , in documents dated 1546. The communal records begin in...
JUS GAZAKA – The usual Italian term for the right of Ḥazaḳah, especially with regard to the rent of houses in the ghetto of Rome. Clement VIII. made it part of the law relating to Jewish tenant-right there. Several publications containing...
KAHAN, ABRAHAM – Russian Hebrew author; born Dec. 19, 1874, at Skomorochy, near Jitomir. He has written or edited the following works: an anthology of S. D. Luzzatto's letters, translated from the Italian into Hebrew, Odessa, 1896; "Debar...
KAIDANOVER, AARON SAMUEL BEN ISRAEL – Polish rabbi; born at Wilna 1614; died at Cracow Dec. 1, 1676 (Michael; but Azulai and Horovitz give 1679; see bibliography). Among his teachers were Jacob Hoeschel and his son Joshua Hoeschel. During the Chmielnicki revolution...
KAMMERKNECHTSCHAFT – Expression for the political condition of the Jews in the German empire, signifying that the revenue derived from them was a royalty of the emperor and belonged to his private treasury ("camera"). Consquently the emperor not...
KANN, MOSES – German rabbi; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died there Dec. 1, 1762; son of Löb Kann. He was chief rabbi of Hesse-Darmstadt and head of the Talmudical school at Frankfort, which had been founded and richly endowed by his...
KARLSBAD – Town in Bohemia; famous for its mineral springs; first made popular by the emperor Charles IV. in 1350. When King Ladislaus II. confirmed, in 1499, the privilege granted to the town by Charles IV., he added, "as an especial...
KARMI – Family name, the Biblical "Carmi" (Num. xxvi. 6); it was used, according to Gross, as a gentilic adjective to the French "Crémieu" or "Crémieux" (= "Kerem Ṭob"), name of a county of the department of Isère, where many Jews were...
KARMI – Family name, the Biblical "Carmi" (Num. xxvi. 6); it was used, according to Gross, as a gentilic adjective to the French "Crémieu" or "Crémieux" (= "Kerem Ṭob"), name of a county of the department of Isère, where many Jews were...
KATZENELLENBOGEN – An old, widely ramified family counting many rabbis among its members, who were and are still found in Italy, Poland, Germany, Alsace, and also in America. It derived its name from the locality of Katzenelnbogen in the Prussian...
KATZENELLENBOGEN – An old, widely ramified family counting many rabbis among its members, who were and are still found in Italy, Poland, Germany, Alsace, and also in America. It derived its name from the locality of Katzenelnbogen in the Prussian...
KATZENELLENBOGEN – An old, widely ramified family counting many rabbis among its members, who were and are still found in Italy, Poland, Germany, Alsace, and also in America. It derived its name from the locality of Katzenelnbogen in the Prussian...
KATZENELLENBOGEN – An old, widely ramified family counting many rabbis among its members, who were and are still found in Italy, Poland, Germany, Alsace, and also in America. It derived its name from the locality of Katzenelnbogen in the Prussian...
KAUFMANN, MOSES JEKUTHIEL – Polish Talmudist; born at Krotoschin about the middle of the seventeenth century. He was a son-in-law of Abraham Abele Gombiner, and was rabbi at Kutno, Poland. He wrote "Ḥuḳḳat Torah," or "Yismaḥ Yisrael," annotations to...
KAVALA – Settlement in Macedonia, on the Ægean Sea opposite the island of Thasos. It is nine miles southwest of Old Kavala, the ancient Neapolis. Kavala has 4,000 inhabitants, one-fourth of whom are Jews, originally from Salonica and...
KAẒ – A frequent Jewish family name, spelled also "Katz," and found in similar forms, such as "Katzer." It is an abbreviation formed from the initials of the name "Kohen Ẓedeḳ" ( ), and has been used since the seventeenth century, or...
KHORASAN – One of the five great divisions of Persia, bounded on the east by Afghanistan; on the north by Zakaspie, the transcaspian territory of Russia; and on the south by Kirwan. In ancient times it was the territory immediately east of...
KIRK-KILISSEH – City in Thrace, European Turkey, 102 miles north of Constantinople. The name signifies in Turkish "forty churches."Kirk-Kilisseh is an ancient Greek city, and it contained no Jews when Sultan Murad II. conquered it in 1436....
KISCH – Family of some distinction; migrated in the 16th century from Chiesch in Bohemia; the founder of the family lived in Prague in the eighteenth century, and the members are now spread throughout Europe. The most prominent members...