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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
KISSINGEN – Bavarian health-resort; it has a total population of 4,024, including 333 Jews. Jews lived in Kissingen as early as the thirteenth century, and they suffered greatly from persecutions under Rindfleisch in 1298 (Salfeld,...
KITTSEER, MICHAEL – Talmudic author; born in Kittsee (Köpcsèny), Hungary, about 1775; died at Presburg Sept. 28, 1845. He was a disciple of Marcus Benedict, and, while not an officiatingrabbi, he devoted his time to rabbinical studies. Strictly...
KITZINGER, JACOB BEN JOSEPH – Author and poet; lived in the second half of the sixteenth and at the beginning of the seventeenth century. He wrote "Ḥag ha-Pesaḥ" (Cracow, 1597), a commentary on the Passover Haggadah, with glosses by his father, a poem on the...
KIẒWEH – In popular parlance, the weekly portion allotted to the local poor; also charity in general. The word "ḳiẓbah," in New Hebrew (Pes. 71b), connected with the Biblical Hebrew "ḳeẓeb" (Jonah ii. 7), means "limit," so used of the...
KLAUS – An institution where Talmudic scholars are given free lodging, and often a stipend in addition, in order that they may devote all their time to the study of the Talmud (sometimes also to teaching and lecturing). From the...
KLAUSENBURG (KOLOZSVÁR) – Royal free city of Kolozs county, Hungary; formerly capital of the grand duchy of Transylvania (1691-1848). Until 1848 no Jews were legally allowed to live in Klausenburg; but the law of 1526, by which the Jews were expelled...
KOHN, GABRIEL BEN REUBEN ISRAEL – Hungarian Talmudist; born at Vagujhely about 1765; died at Rechnitz Dec. 29, 1850, where he became rabbi in 1822. The family adopted the name of Engelsmann. Kohn was strictly Orthodox, and opposed to the slightest change of...
KOLIN – In the Seventeenth Century. Town in Bohemia. Its Jewish community is one of the oldest in the country. A number of Jews were living here in the fourteenth century, and they had their own synagogue. A stone inscription from a...
KÖNIGLICHE WEINBERGE – A southeastern suburb of Prague. The city of Königliche Weinberge was built within a few years after the Austro-Prussian war of 1866, when the walls of Prague were removed. As the site had been formerly occupied by vineyards...
KÖNIGSBERG – Capital of the province of East Prussia. It was founded by the knights of the Teutonic Order, the laws of which excluded the Jews from its territory. After the secularization of the order Duke Albert granted to two Jewish...
KONITZ AFFAIR – An accusation of ritual murder, based on the unexplained assassination of the student Ernst Winter in Konitz, West Prussia. Winter, the son of an architect of Prechlau, attended the gymnasium of Konitz. Although only nineteen...
KOPPELMANN, JACOB BEN SAMUEL – German author and translator; born in the district of Breisgau 1555; died 1598. In 1583 he went to Frankfort-on-the-Main, but was obliged to leave that city on account of the plague. While on the road he composed his "Ohel...
KOSTEL (PODIVIN) – Town in Moravia. Its Jewish community is said to be the oldest in Moravia. According to Cosmas of Prague (d. 1125), a Jew named Podiva founded (1067) the castle which was named after him "Podivin"; this is still the Slavic name...
KREFELD – Prussian manufacturing town near Düsseldorf, in the province of the Rhine. Small neighboring villages, embraced in the former electorate of Cologne, and which probably contained Jews, are mentioned in accounts of persecutions as...
KREMSIR – Town in Moravia, Austria, twelve miles southwest of Prerau. The oldest authentic records of its Jewish community date from the year 1322, when John, King of Bohemia and Poland, gave to the Bishop of Olmütz permission to settle...
KREUZNACH – Prussian town and watering-place in the government of Coblenz. The first mention of Jews in Kreuznach occurs in an account of an attack upon them on March 31, 1283, given in Salfeld's "Martyrologium." In a number of documents,...
KROCHMAL, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN ABRAHAM – Moravian rabbi; born at Cracow about 1600; died at Nikolsburg Jan. 2, 1661. His teacher in the Talmud was Joel Sirkes, author of "Bet Ḥadash." Krochmal soon distinguished himself so highly that with the permission of his master...
KRUG, WILHELM TRAUGOTT – Christian advocate of the emancipation of the Jews; born June 22, 1770, in the village of Radis, near Wittenberg, Prussia; died at Leipsic Jan. 12, 1842. He was lecturer at the University of Wittenberg (1794-1801), and professor...
KUH, EPHRAIM MOSES – German poet; born 1731 in Breslau; died there April 3, 1790. His parents had chosen for him the career of a student of the Talmud; but his faith had been shaken by the influence of a skeptic teacher, and he preferred to enter...
KUSTENDIL – Bulgarian city in the north of Macedonia, near the Servian city of Nish. Jews must have settled at Kustendil before the beginning of the eighteenth century; a tombstone in the local cemetery bears the date 5509 (= 1749), and...
LAIBACH – Capital of the Austrian province of Carniola. The first mention of Jews in Laibach dates from 1213, when it is recorded that they rebuilt their synagogue much handsomer than it was before. The usual accusations against Jews in...
LAMDEN – Late Hebrew expression for a man who is well informed in rabbinical literature, although not a scholar in the technical sense of the term ("talmid ḥakam"); it does not seem to have been used before the eighteenth century....
LANDAU – A family name said to have been derived from the name of a city situated in western Germany.The name is found largely among Polish Jews, who probably were expelled from that city about the middle of the sixteenth century (see...
LANDESRABBINER – Spiritual head of the Jewish communities of a country, province, or district; met with in several parts of Germany and Austria. The office is a result of the legal condition of the Jews in medieval times when the Jewish...
LANDESRABBINERSCHULE IN BUDAPEST (Országos Rabbiképzö Intézet) – The efforts to found a rabbinical seminary in Hungary reach back to the beginning of the nineteenth century. The various projects, however, did not receive tangible form until a Jewish school fund had been created by King...