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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
MÜLHAUSEN – City in Alsace. Its Jewish community is of comparatively recent foundation. In 1784 there were no Jews in Mülhausen, and only since 1798, when the city was incorporated into France, have Jews been tolerated there. In 1830 the...
MÜNDEN – Town in the province of Hanover, Prussia. Its Jews are first mentioned in the sixteenth century. When Duke Heinrich the Younger excluded all Jews from the territory of Brunswick (1557), the Jews of Münden were permitted to...
MUNICH – Capital of Bavaria, Germany. It has (1904) a total population of 499,959, including 8,739 Jews. When Jews first went there is not known, but since by 1158 Duke Henry the Lion had made it an important commercial center, the...
MÜNZ (MINZ), MOSES – Hungarian rabbi; born about 1750 in Podolia; died 1831 at Alt-Ofen. For several years he lived at Brody, Galicia, where he acquired a great reputation as a Talmudical scholar. Highly recommended by Ezekiel Landau, he was called...
MUSSAFIA (MUSAPHIA), BENJAMIN BEN IMMANUEL – Physician and philologist of the seventeenth century, who in his Latin work on medicine calls himself Dionysius; born about 1606, probably in Spain; died at Amsterdam in 1675. In his earlier years he practised medicine at...
MUSSAFIA, ḤAYYIM ISAAC – Talmudist; born at Jerusalem 1760; died at Spalato, Dalmatia, June 10, 1837. He studied chiefly under David Pardo of Sarajevo, Bosnia, the author of numerousTalmudic works; and he so rapidly progressed in his studies that he was...
NAAR, ISAAC – akam, and, according to De Barrios, physician of the seventeenth century; born at Amsterdam; studied with Moses Zacuto and Baruch Spinoza under Saul Levi Morteira at the Talmud Torah 'Eẓ Ḥayyim, where he subsequently taught. A...
NABON – Turkish family which, from the seventeenth century onward, produced several rabbinical writers. It had several branches, of which one was at Jerusalem and another at Constantinople.Benjamin Nabon: Rabbinical writer; was living...
NAGARI, MOSES BEN JUDAH – Philosophical writer. According to Steinschneider, he lived at Rome about 1300, and his name should be read "Na'ar" ( ), he being of the Ne'arim family ("Adolescentoli"). He wrote "Ma'amar ba-Ma'areket,"an index to Maimonides'...
NAGY-KANIZSA – Hungarian town, in the county of Szalad. The antiquity of its disused cemetery, which dates back to the end of the seventeenth century, is the only index to the period of the first settlement of the Jews in Nagy-Kanizsa. This...
NAHUM – Liturgical poet; lived about 1300, probably in southern Spain. He possessed unusual talent. Some of his poems have been translated into German and printed by Michael Sachs, while others are preserved only in manuscript.This...
NAHUM, MENAHEM, OF CHERNOBYL – asidic leader in the last part of the eighteenth century. He was a pupil of Baer of Meseritz, by whom he was sent to Galicia to disseminate the teachings of Ḥasidism. In 1772, when Ḥasidism was endangered by the death of Baer of...
NAJARA (NAJAR, NIJAR, NAGAR, NAGARA) – Oriental Jewish family, originally from Najera, a Spanish city of Navarre, on the River Najerilla. In the history of rabbinical literature Najaras are found at Algiers, Tunis, Damascus, Gaza, etc.David Najar: Rabbinical writer...
NAJARA (NAJAR, NIJAR, NAGAR, NAGARA) – Oriental Jewish family, originally from Najera, a Spanish city of Navarre, on the River Najerilla. In the history of rabbinical literature Najaras are found at Algiers, Tunis, Damascus, Gaza, etc.David Najar: Rabbinical writer...
NAPHTALI HERZ BEN ẒEBI HIRSCH HALBERSTADT – Rabbi at Dubno, Russia, in the eighteenth century. Responsa of his in regard to the Cleve divorce case are found in Israel Lipschütz's collection "Or Israel" (1770). In the same collection are some responsa by his brother...
NAPHTALI HIRZ BEN JACOB GOSLAR – German rabbi and philosopher of the eighteenth century. After acting as dayyan at Halberstadt for some time, he settled at Amsterdam, where he began the study of philosophy. He wrote "Merome Sadeh," novellæ on the Talmud...
NASI, REYNA – Duchess of Naxos; born in Portugal; only daughter of the Marano Francisco Mendes-Nasi and Gracia Mendesia (Beatrice de Luna). She lived with her mother at Antwerp, then at Venice, going with her to Constantinople about 1552,...
NASSAU – Earliest Mention. Formerly a German dukedom; since 1866 it has formed a part of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. In 1865, immediately before its union with Prussia, it had a total population of 465,636, including 6,995...
NATHAN FEITEL – Rabbi at Hotzenplotz and Austerlitz in the seventeenth century. He wrote "Ḥoḳ Natan," or "Derushim le-Kol Ḥefẓehem" (Cracow, 1609; with a preface by Phinehas b. Israel ha-Levi Horowitz), and a homily on the Sabbath lesson...
NATHAN B. ISAAC JACOB BONN – Rabbi at Mayence, and later at Hamburg, in the middle of the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Shikḥat Leḳeṭ," a supplement to the "Yalḳuṭ Ḥadash," with which work it was published at Prague in 1652. This supplement...
NATHAN B. LABI (B. JUDAH) – German liturgist; lived at the beginning of the fourteenth century. He was the author of a liturgical work entitled "Sefer Maḥkim," and sometimes quoted as "Sefer ha-Minhagim." Though it was not published, the book was often...
NATHAN, MOSES B. SOLOMON B. NATHANAEL – Provençal liturgist; his period and birthplace are unknown. He was the author of a didactic poem entitled "Toẓe'ot Ḥayyim"; it comprises fifty-eight sections and was edited in Menahem di Lonzano's "Shete Yadot" (Venice, 1618). A...
NAUMBURG, JACOB – Rabbi of Mayence and Offenbach at the end of the eighteenth century. He was the grandson of Jonah Te'omim, the author of "Ḳiḳayon de-Yonah." Naumburg wrote: "Naḥalat Ya'aḳob," commentary on the smaller tractates (Fürth, 1793);...
NEBELAH – Biblical expression for the carcass of an animal, and sometimes for a dead human body(I Kings xiii. 24; Isa. xxvi. 19; Ps. lxxix. 2). The Mosaic law contains a prohibition against eating, carrying, or touching the carcass of an...
NEBICH (NEBBICH) – Judæo-German term carrying the sense of "regret" and "pity." It is used as a noun, an adverb, and most often as an interjection; e.g., "Nebich, the poor man"; "He is a great nebich" (object of pity). The etymological explanation...