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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
NE'ILAH – The last of the five services held on the Day of Atonement. The earliest mention of it is in the Mishnah (Ta'an. 26a), where it is said: "On three occasions the priests pronounce the benediction four times in the day, namely, at...
NERO – Roman emperor; born at Antium Dec. 15, 37 C.E.; died near Rome in 68. His original name was Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, but on being adopted by the emperor Claudius he was called Nero Claudius Cæsar Drusus Germanicus. After his...
NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE – Town of France, and suburb of Paris. It has a population of 32,730. Its Jewish community, which now (1904) comprises about 250 families, is comparatively new. About 1860 a small oratory was established in a hired hall, but after...
NEUSTADT, PHINEHAS – German rabbi and author; born at Borek, province of Posen, Prussia, Sept. 23, 1823; died at Breslau Feb. 24, 1902. Neustadt, who lost his father before he was two years of age, was apprenticed by his mother to a bookbinder, but...
NEUTITSCHEIN – City in the province of Moravia, Austria. It had a Jewish congregation in the Middle Ages, which was expelled Aug. 30, 1563. The cemetery was deeded by the Jews to the city under the condition that it should be preserved. It...
NICE – In the Seventeenth Century. City of southern France. Jews settled there in the fourth century, and, as in the other Gallic cities along the coast of the Mediterranean, were the intermediaries in the commercial transactions...
NICOPOLIS – Early History. City of Bulgaria, situated on the right bank of the Danube, 160 kilometers southeast of Widdin. The settlement of Jews in Nicopolis was most likely contemporaneous with the foundation of the city by the emperor...
NIEBLA – One of the oldest towns of Spain, situated 12 miles west of Seville and to the east of Huelva. It was one of the earliest Jewish settlements in Spain, having been inhabited by Jews in the days of the Visigoths. When Alfonso VI....
NIGRIN (NEGRIN), SIMON (SOLOMON) – Author; lived in Jerusalem in the early part of the seventeenth century; a grandnephew of Moses Nigrin. He is the supposed author of "Derush 'al ha-Tefillah" (Dyhernfurth, 1732), homiletic explanations of the important prayers,...
NIKOLSBURG – A Street in the Nikolsburg Ghetto.(From a photograph.)Town in southern Moravia. The settlement of the Jews in Nikolsburg dates probably from 1420, when, after the expulsion from the neighboring province of Lower Austria,...
NITTEL – Judæo-German word for "Christmas"; derived from the medieval Latin "Natale Domini" (see Wetzer and Welte, "Kirchenlexikon," vii. 588); Old Latin, "Dies Natalis"; French, "Noël." Moses Isserles speaks of the custom of sending...
NOAH B. PESAḤ – Acting rabbi in Pinsk; died there in 1638. He wrote a commentary on Bereshit Rabbah under the title of "Toledot Noaḥ" (Cracow, 1634).Bibliography: Fürst, Bibl. Jud. iii. 38; Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, iii. 103; Benjacob, Oẓar...
NÖRDLINGEN – History of the Community. City in the district of Swabia, Bavaria; till 1803 a free city of the German empire. Like Augsburg, Nuremberg, Würzburg, and other cities of the district, Nördlingen probably had a Jewish population in...
NORTHEIM – Town in the province of Hanover, Prussia. It has a population of 6,695, of whom over 100 are Jews. Jews lived there as early as the fourteenth or fifteenth century, and paid to the council of Hildesheim a semiannual tax ranging...
NORWAY – Northwestern division of the Scandinavian peninsula. It has a total population of 2,240,032. The census of 1897 counted over 300 Jews there, but their number has since doubled. In conformity with a law which became operative...
NOTHHANDEL – Technical term used in the laws referring to the petty trading of the Jews, which laws aimed to exclude the Jews from such occupations. "Nothhandel" (emergency trade) is defined as the itinerant trade of villages—pawnbroking,...
NUNES, HENRIQUE (ENRIQUE) – Judæo-Portuguese convert to Christianity; born in Borba, Portugal; died July, 1524. After being baptized in Castile, he entered the service of the inquisitor Lucero. His hatred toward his former coreligionists was so well known...
NUÑEZ, MARIA – Daughter of the Portuguese Marano Gaspar Lopez Homem and Mayor Rodriguez; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In order to escape the Inquisition, Maria, with her brother Manuel Lopez and her uncle Miguel Lopez,...
OATH MORE JUDAICO – Special form of oath, accompanied by certain ceremonies, which Jews were required to take in courts of law.Historical Development. The disability of a Jew in a contention with a Christian dates back to the Byzantine emperor...
OBADIAH BEN DAVID B. OBADIAH – Commentator; born in 1325, according to Azulai ("Shem ha-Gedolim," i. 76); in 1341, according to Steinschneider ("Cat. Bodl." col. 2075, No. 6687). He wrote a commentary on Maimonides' "Yad," Ḳiddush ha-Ḥodesh, in which he gives...
OEDENBURG (Sopron) – Hungarian city, capital of the district of the same name. Its Jewish community, according to a document of 1526, dates from the tenth century and is one of the oldest in Hungary. The town was destroyed by fire in 1317. Charles...
OESTERREICHISCH-ISRAELITISCHE UNION – Austrian political society for the protection of Jewish interests, founded in 1884 on account of the victory of the anti-Semites in the election of that year in Vienna and Lower Austria. Its purposes were "To promote a love for...
OFAN (OFANNIM) – Name by which is known that part of the morning prayer in which the praise of the Lord by the heavenly host is described. This passage begins with the words "The ofannim [wheels] and the holy living creatures with great uproar...
OLDENBURG – Grand duchy of northern Germany. It includes nine Jewish communities, among which are Delmenhorst, Jever, Oldenburg, Varel, Vechta, and Wildeshausen. The presence of Jews in Oldenburg during the Middle Ages is proved by a very...
OLMÜTZ – City of Moravia in which Jews were living as early as the twelfth century (Maḥzor Vitry, p. 388, Berlin, 1899-1903). In 1454, under Ladislaus, owing to the agitation of John Capistrano, the Jews were expelled from Olmütz, and...