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Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
ONKENEIRA, ISAAC BEN SAMUEL – Turkish Talmudist, poet, and polemical writer; flourished at Constantinople about the middle of the sixteenth century. He was a friend of Don Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, and is supposed to have transcribed and prefaced, under...
OPFERPFENNIG, GOLDENER – Personal tax, for the benefit of the emperor, imposed upon the German Jews by Ludwig the Bavarian in 1342. The general principle governing the treatment of the Jews in Germany from the earliest times was that they were crown...
OPPELN – City in Prussian Silesia. Although the first explicit reference to Jews at Oppeln belongs to the fourteenth century, and the Jews' street is not mentioned until a century later, they doubtless settled there at an earlier date;...
OPPENHEIM – German family, probably originating in the town of that name. Its best-known members are:Bernhard (Issachar Baer) Oppenheim: Austrian rabbi; born at Strassnitz, Moravia, about 1790; died at Eibenschütz Dec. 26, 1859. He received...
OPPENHEIM, ABRAHAM – German rabbi; born at Mannheim; died at Hanover Nov. 2, 1786; son of Löb Oppenheim. He was for many years prebendary in the Klaus of Mannheim, whence he was called in the same capacity to Amsterdam and subsequently to Hanover,...
OPPENHEIM, ABRAHAM – Communal leader; born at Worms; died at Heidelberg Dec. 2, 1692; son of Simon Wolf Oppenheim, brother of Samuel Oppenheim, court factor of Vienna, and father of David Oppenheim. He was called also Abraham "zur Kanne," in...
OPPENHEIM, ABRAHAM ḤAYYIM – Rabbi at Péczel, Hungary, where he died at the age of twenty-eight, before 1825. He was the author of "Har Ebel" (Lemberg, 1824), ritual regulations on visiting the sick, mourning customs, etc., and of a treatise entitled...
OPPENHEIM, SIMON BEN DAVID – Austrian plagiarist; born in Kromau, Moravia, 1753; died at Pest, where he was dayyan, Jan. 24, 1851. He seems to have pursued his studies in Prague, where he lived at the end of the eighteenth century. There he published a book...
OPPENHEIMER, JOSEPH SÜSS – German financier; born at Heidelberg in 1698; executed at Stuttgart Feb. 4, 1738. He was the son of R. Issachar Süsskind Oppenheimer, a singer and leader of a wandering troupe of singers and players, and of Michele, daughter of...
ORABUENA – Spanish family; flourished in Navarre in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Many of its members were rabbis or tax-lessees. Another family, very likely related, has the similar name of Buenahora.Judah Orabuena: Son of D....
ORANGE – Chief town of the department of Vaucluse, France; until 1702 capital of the small independent principality of the same name. The earliest documents relating to the settlement of Jews in Orange date from the fourteenth century....
OSNABRÜCK – Capital of the district of the same name in the province of Hanover, Prussia. A Jew named Jacob is mentioned in a document of 1267 as living there; and the text of a Jewish oath of the same period has been preserved. On Nov. 28,...
ÖTTINGEN, ELIJAH B. ABRAHAM B. MORDECAI HA-LEVI – Rabbi at Wengrow, Poland, in the first half of the seventeenth century. His first work, "Berit ha-Lewi" (Lublin, 1645), is an ethical exposition of the prayer of Moses (Deut. iii. 23-26) by 365 different methods, interwoven with...
PAIVA (PAYBA), DE – Spanish Marano family of Amsterdam, with some members in Mexico.Abraham de Paiva: Poet; lived in Amsterdam about 1687. A Spanish sonnet by him is included in a pamphlet by D. L. de Barrios ("Tora Or," p. 40).Jacob Ribero de...
PAKS CONFERENCE – Meeting of rabbis held Aug. 20 and 21, 1844, at the town of Paks, Hungary. The discussions in the Hungarian Parliament concerning the emancipation of the Jews produced in Hungary, as elsewhere in Europe, a demand for the reform...
PAPPENHEIM – Small town in Mittelfranken, containing one of the oldest Jewish communities in Bavaria. The statement of Stern-Neubauer that the word in R. Solomon bar Simeon's account of the persecution during the Second Crusade means...
PARDO – A family deriving its name from Prado in Castile. Its members have mostly distinguished themselves in the Levant. Among them may be mentioned:David Pardo: Rabbinical commentator and liturgical poet; born at Venice March 29,...
PARIS – Capital city of France. There were Jews in Paris prior to the date of the Frankish invasion. The councils of Varennes in 465 and of Orleans in 533, 538, and 541 adopted certain measures against the Jews, from which it would...
PARNAS – Neo-Hebraic word designating the president or the trustee of a congregation. It is found in the Targum as the equivalent of words which are interpreted as "steward" (see Isa. xxii. 15; Zech. xi. 3), and it is frequently met with...
PARSHANDATHA – The first-born son of Haman (Esth. ix. 7). In the twelfth century the name obtained a literary meaning. It was then separated into the words "parshan" (= "interpreter") and "data" (= "law"), and was used with reference to Rashi,...
PASTOUREAUX – French religious fanatics of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In the year 1251 an unknown man, called "Le Maître de Hongrie," began to preach the Crusade in the plains of Picardy. In a short time he gained numerous...
PATER SYNAGOGÆ – Title occurring frequently in the inscriptions of the Jewish catacombs at Rome. According to Berliner ("Gesch. der Juden in Rom," i. 69), it is the equivalent of Parnas, while Schürer ("Gesch." 3d ed., iii. 50), whom most...
PECS (FÜNFKIRCHEN) – Royal free city in the county of Baranya, Hungary. The few Jewish families which had settled there toward the end of the eighteenth century, not having the means to build a synagogue, held services in a rented room. By about...
PEDRO II. (PEDRO D'ALCANTARA) – Emperor of Brazil; born Dec. 2, 1825; died at Paris Dec. 5, 1891. He succeeded his father, Pedro I., and assumed personal control of the government in July, 1840. The last years of his life were spent in exile after his...
PEḤAH – An office, based upon a Babylonian model, and which existed in Palestine as early as the Biblical period, being mentioned, for instance, during the reign of Solomon (c. 900 B.C.), although no details are given concerning it (I...