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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
EVOLUTION – Judaism and Evolution. The series of steps by which all existing beings have been developed by gradual modification; term generally applied to the theory concerning the origin of species and the descent of man connected with the...
EXODUS – The departure, under the leadership of Moses, of the Israelites from the land of Egypt.—Biblical Data: Having multiplied in the land of Goshen, the Israelites were enslaved and oppressed in various ways by a "new king" who "knew...
EXODUS, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: The second book of the Torah or Pentateuch is called by the Jews , from the opening words, or briefly . The Greek name is ξοδος (in Philo also ξαγωγή), that is, "departure"; the Latin, "[Liber] Exodus." It...
EXODUS, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: The second book of the Torah or Pentateuch is called by the Jews , from the opening words, or briefly . The Greek name is ξοδος (in Philo also ξαγωγή), that is, "departure"; the Latin, "[Liber] Exodus." It...
EYE – Biblical Data: This important organ is mentioned more than 800 times in the Bible, but is described only in its external appearance and significance, according to the experience of daily life. The following parts are mentioned:...
EZBAI – Father of Naarai, one of David's thirty mighty warriors (I Chron. xi. 37). The parallel list of II Samuel has "Paarai the Arbite" (xxiii. 35) instead of "Naarai the son of Ezbai." Kennicott concluded ("Dissertation," p. 209)...
EZBON – 1. Son of Gad, and father of one of the Gadite families (Gen. xlvi. 16). In Num. xxvi. 16 "Ezbon" is replaced by "Ozni" ( ). 2. A son of Bela, son of Benjamin (I Chron. vii. 7).E. G. H. M. Sel.
EZEKIEL – His Influence. —Biblical Data: Concerning the life of Ezekiel there are but a few scattered references contained in the book bearing his name. He was the son of Buzi, a priest of Jerusalem (Ezek. i. 3), and consequently a member...
EZEKIEL, BOOK OF – Ezekiel's book is one of the most original in the sacred literature of Israel. Its principal features are its systematic arrangement and homogeneity. The book falls into two principal parts, i.-xxiv. and xxv.-xlviii.,...
EZER – Theophorous name, shortened either from "Eleazar" or from "Azriel," both occurring in the Bible. 1. Son of Ephraim, slain by the inhabitants of Gath (I Chron. vii. 21). 2. A Levite who assisted Nehemiah in reconstructing the...
EZION - GEBER – A maritime place of Idumæa, situated on the Ælanitic Gulf of the Red Sea, not far from Elath or Eloth (Deut. ii. 8; I Kings ix, 26; II Chron. viii. 17). It was the last encampment of the Israelites before they came to the...
EZRA THE SCRIBE – Biblical Data: A descendant of Seraiah the high priest (Neh. viii. 13; Ezra vii. 1 et seq.; II Kings xxv. 18-21); a member of the priestly order, and therefore known also as Ezra the Priest ( : Ezra vii. 11; x. 10, 16). The...
EZRA THE SCRIBE – Biblical Data: A descendant of Seraiah the high priest (Neh. viii. 13; Ezra vii. 1 et seq.; II Kings xxv. 18-21); a member of the priestly order, and therefore known also as Ezra the Priest ( : Ezra vii. 11; x. 10, 16). The...
EZRA THE SCRIBE – Biblical Data: A descendant of Seraiah the high priest (Neh. viii. 13; Ezra vii. 1 et seq.; II Kings xxv. 18-21); a member of the priestly order, and therefore known also as Ezra the Priest ( : Ezra vii. 11; x. 10, 16). The...
EZRAHITE – Name occurring in Psalms lxxxviii. and lxxxix. (in the titles); I Kings iv. 31; and I Chronicles ii. 6. In the last-mentioned passage the Authorized Version gives "son of Zerah." It is not probable that the Ezrahite of Kings,...
FALL OF ANGELS – In Apocalyptic Writings. The conception of fallen angels—angels who, for wilful, rebellious conduct against God, or through weakness under temptation.thereby forfeiting their angelic dignity, were degraded and condemned to a...
FALL OF MAN – A change from the beatific condition, due to the alleged original depravity of the human race. The events narrated in Gen. iii. leading up to the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden are held to support the doctrine of the fall...
FAMINE – A general scarcity of food, resulting as from drought, war, hail, flood, or insects. The land of Canaan is said in the Bible to have been several times afflicted with distressing famine, which is frequently mentioned together...
FASTING AND FAST-DAYS – Fasting is usually defined as a withholding of all natural food from the body for a determined period voluntarily appointed for moral or religious ends. This institution has found wide acceptance in all religious systems,...
FAT – Biblical Data: The rendering in the English versions of the Hebrew word "ḥeleb," an animal substance of an oily character deposited in adipose tissues. In Judges iii. 22 it is mentioned as covering the human intestines. It is...
FEET, WASHING OF – Biblical Data: Since the Israelites, like all other Oriental peoples, wore sandals instead of shoes, and as they usually went barefoot in the house, frequent washing of the feet was a necessity. Hence among the Israelites it was...
FEET, WASHING OF – Biblical Data: Since the Israelites, like all other Oriental peoples, wore sandals instead of shoes, and as they usually went barefoot in the house, frequent washing of the feet was a necessity. Hence among the Israelites it was...
FERRET – The rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew "anaḳah" (Lev. xi. 30). The Septuagint has μυγάλη ("shrew-mouse"); but from the context it appears that some kind of lizard is meant. The Revised Version gives "gecko" (see...
FESTIVALS – Biblical Data: The Hebrews designated a festival by the word "ḥag" (the Arabic "ḥajj"), originally implying a choragic rhythmic procession around the shrine of an idol or an altar (see Wellhausen, "Skizzen und Vorarbeiten," iii....
FIG AND FIG-TREE – The fig-tree (Ficus Carica) and its fruit are designated in Hebrew by the same word, "te'enah" (Deut. viii. 8; Judges ix. 10; Num. xiii. 23; II Kings xx. 7); the plural, "te'enim," indicating the fruit as distinct from the tree....