JewishEncyclopedia.com

The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- Phrase search: "names of god"
- Exclude terms: "names of god" -zerah
- Volume/Page: v9 p419
- Diacritics optional: Ḥanukkah or hanukkah
- Search by Author: altruism author:Hirsch
search tips & recommendations

Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
FIR – The usual Authoized Version rendering of (once of the North-Palestinian pronunciation). In the Revised Version "cypress" has been adopted in almost every case in the margin. Of the ancient versions the Vulgate almost in variably...
FIRE – Biblical Data: The ordinary process of combustion, for which the Hebrew generally has , in Daniel (Aramaic) , and, with reference to the accompanying heat and glow, and ; while is a corrupt ἄπαξ λεγόμενον), the derivation of...
FIRST-FRUITS – Biblical Data: As the firstling among the cattle, so the first-fruits of the field ("reshit," "ḥeleb" [LXX. ἀπαρχή], "bikkurim" [LXX. πρωτογεννήματα]), of corn, of wine, and of oil belonged to Yhwh. According to Ex. xxii. 28 (A....
FIRST-FRUITS – Biblical Data: As the firstling among the cattle, so the first-fruits of the field ("reshit," "ḥeleb" [LXX. ἀπαρχή], "bikkurim" [LXX. πρωτογεννήματα]), of corn, of wine, and of oil belonged to Yhwh. According to Ex. xxii. 28 (A....
FISH AND FISHING – The Bible does not mention any particular fish by name. "Dag" and "nun" are the generic terms covering all species, thus designated as exceedingly prolific and always to be found in shoals or in large numbers (comp. blessing of...
FLAX – The principal species of the natural order Linaceæ which includes more than fifty other species. The culture of flax in Palestine preceded the conquest of that country by the Hebrews (Joshua ii. 6).Some of the processes in its...
FLESH – The soft portions of the animal body, internally connected with the skeleton of bones and externally enclosed by the skin (Gen. ii. 21; Job x. 11). Flesh is an article of food (Dan. vii. 5), generally roasted over the fire or...
FLOOD, THE – Biblical Data (Gen. vi. 9-ix. 17): When God on account of man's wickedness resolved to destroy by a flood all mankind and all the animal world, only Noah and his family and two (or seven) pairs of every living species were...
FLOOD, THE – Biblical Data (Gen. vi. 9-ix. 17): When God on account of man's wickedness resolved to destroy by a flood all mankind and all the animal world, only Noah and his family and two (or seven) pairs of every living species were...
FLOOD, THE – Biblical Data (Gen. vi. 9-ix. 17): When God on account of man's wickedness resolved to destroy by a flood all mankind and all the animal world, only Noah and his family and two (or seven) pairs of every living species were...
FLOOD, THE – Biblical Data (Gen. vi. 9-ix. 17): When God on account of man's wickedness resolved to destroy by a flood all mankind and all the animal world, only Noah and his family and two (or seven) pairs of every living species were...
FLOUR – The finely ground substance of any cereal. The earliest and most simple way of crushing grain consisted in pounding it in a mortar, producing a coarse flour, or rather different grades of grits (comp. the preparation of the...
FOOD – Biblical Data: There are two main divisions of food, vegetable and animal.I. Vegetable Food: As among all the Oriental peoples, and as is the case even to-day among the fellaheen of Syria, vegetable food, and chiefly grain...
FOREST – In the English versions the word "forest" is employed for the rendering of four different Hebrew words: (1) "ya'ar," which occurs more than forty times; (2) "ḥoresh," five times; (3) "ḥoreshah," once; and (4) "pardes," once. The...
FORTRESS – Principal Fortresses. A permanent fort or fortified place. The Israelites, when advancing into the country west of the Jordan, found a considerable number of walled cities and fortresses which they could not conquer (Num. xiii....
FOUNTAIN – A natural spring of water. Although Palestine as a whole is scantily supplied with water, it has a number of fountains. These often spring up in the hollows of cliffs; but sometimes wells have been dug. The Old Testament makes...
FOX – Biblical Data: There are at present two species of fox inhabiting Palestine: the Canis flavescens, found in the north, and the C. niloticus, common in the central and southern regions. But most of the passages of the Old...
FRANKINCENSE – Frankincense was not indigenous to Palestine—the assumption that the tree from which it is derived was at home in the Lebanon Mountains rests merely on the similarity of the name ("lebanon" = λίβανος)— though gardens for the...
FROG – The Hebrew term generally occurs in the plural; twice only in the singular as collective, once with (Ex. viii. 2) and once without (Ps. lxxviii. 45) the article. Frogs are mentioned in the Bible only in connection with the...
FUEL – Mineral coal was unknown to the ancient Hebrews, who used instead wood, manure, and grass for fuel. Wood was never abundant in Palestine, though there was not such a dearth in ancient times as exists at the present day. Various...
FULLER – A cloth-finisher or -cleaner. The Hebrew term is (Mal. iii. 2) or (II Kings xviii. 17; Isa. vii. 3, xxxvi. 3), denoting one engaged in either of two occupations: (1) the cleaning of soiled garments or cloth, and (2) the...
FURNACE – Three kinds of structures or apparatus for baking, smelting, etc., were known to the ancient Hebrews: (1) the oven for baking bread; (2) the potters' kiln for firing earthen vessels; and (3) the furnace for smelting metals and...
FURNITURE, HOUSEHOLD – Biblical Data: In the East the house is not as important as in northern countries, since the climate permits an outdoor life in the widest sense of the term. The house is used chiefly as a shelter for the night and for sleeping,...
GABRIEL – With Michael, Gabriel is mentioned by name in the Book of Daniel, where he explains to Daniel his visions (Dan. viii. 16-26, ix. 21-27). He appears to Zacharias, and announces to Mary that she is about to have a son whose name...
GAD – 1. The seventh of Jacob's sons, the first-born of Zilpah, himself the father of seven sons (Gen. xxx. 10, 11; xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 15 et seq.). The name means "[good] fortune."2. Biblical Data: Tribe descended from Gad, the...