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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
GENEALOGY – Biblical Data: A list, in the order of succession, of ancestors and their descendants. The Pentateuchal equivalent for "genealogies" is "toledot" (generations), the verb being in the "ḳal" and "hif'il" forms. The later form is...
GENEALOGY – Biblical Data: A list, in the order of succession, of ancestors and their descendants. The Pentateuchal equivalent for "genealogies" is "toledot" (generations), the verb being in the "ḳal" and "hif'il" forms. The later form is...
GENERATION – This many-sided word, like its equivalents in the modern versions of the Bible, is used to translate the Hebrew "dor" and "toledah" (the latter found only in the plural). The primary meaning of "dor" is "period"; the secondary,...
GENESIS, THE BOOK OF – 1. —Biblical Data: The first book of the Torah, and therefore of the whole Bible, is called by the Jews "Bereshit," after the initial word; by the Septuagint and by Philo it is called Γύνεσις (κόσμου) = "origin" (of the world),...
GENNESARET, LAKE OF – Biblical Data: A lake which takes its name ("Gennesaret" or "Gennesar"; I Macc. xi. 67; Luke v. 1; and in Josephus) from the small fruitful plain which lies on its western side (Matt. xiv. 34; Mark vi. 53), the present...
GENTILE – Meaning of the Term. A word of Latin origin (from "gens"; "gentilis"), designating a people not Jewish, commonly applied to non-Jews. The term is said (but falsely so) to imply inferiority and to express contempt. If used at all...
GENTILE – Meaning of the Term. A word of Latin origin (from "gens"; "gentilis"), designating a people not Jewish, commonly applied to non-Jews. The term is said (but falsely so) to imply inferiority and to express contempt. If used at all...
GENTILE – Meaning of the Term. A word of Latin origin (from "gens"; "gentilis"), designating a people not Jewish, commonly applied to non-Jews. The term is said (but falsely so) to imply inferiority and to express contempt. If used at all...
GENTILE – Meaning of the Term. A word of Latin origin (from "gens"; "gentilis"), designating a people not Jewish, commonly applied to non-Jews. The term is said (but falsely so) to imply inferiority and to express contempt. If used at all...
GENUBATH – Son of Hadad the Edomite by an Egyptian princess, the sister-in-law of the Pharaoh who governed Egypt at the time of David and Solomon (I Kings xi. 20).E. G. H. M. Sel.
GERA – 1. Fourth son of Benjamin (Gen. xlvi. 21). He is not mentioned in the list of Benjamin's sons given in Num. xxvi. 38-40. In I Chron. viii. 3 Gera is given as the son of Bela, the first son of Benjamin.2. Father of Ehud the...
GERAR – Seat of a Philistine prince (Gen. x. 19, xx. 1 et seq., xxvi. 20; I Chron. iv. 39 [LXX.]; II Chron. xiv. 12 et seq.). Following the statementin Gen. xx. 1 ("between Kadesh and Shur"), Trumbull ("Kadesh Barnea," pp. 255, 631)...
GERIZIM, MOUNT – Biblical Data: Mountain south of the valley in which Shechem was situated; the present Jabal al-Ṭur (Deut. xi. 29, xxvii. 12; Josh. viii. 33; Judges ix. 7). It is 2,849 feet high, declines sharply to the north, and is sparsely...
GERSHOM – First-born son of Moses and Zipporah (Ex. ii. 22, xviii. 3). The circumcision of a child of Moses described in Ex. iv. 25 is evidently that of Gershom, but the Midrash refers it to Eliezer. As to the Gershom mentioned in Judges...
GESHAN – One of the sons of Jahdai, of the family of Caleb (I Chron. ii. 47).E. G. H. M. Sel.
GESHEM THE ARABIAN – Ally of Sanballat and Tobiah and adversary of Nehemiah (Neh. ii. 19, vi. 1). In Neh. vi. 6 he is called "Gashmu," which is probably more correct, as an Arab tribe named "Gushamu" is known (Cook, "Aramaic Glossary," s.v. ). When...
GESHUR, GESHURITES – Geshur was a territory in the northern part of Bashan, adjoining the province of Argob (Deut. iii. 14) and the kingdom of Aram or Syria (II Sam. xv. 8; I Chron. ii. 23). It was allotted to the half-tribe of Manasseh, which...
GEZER – Ancient Canaanitish city mentioned in Egyptian inscriptions and the Amarna letters as being the seat of a local prince (comp. Josh. x. 33, xii. 12). The Israelites failed to conquer it (Josh. xvi. 10; Judges i. 29; comp. II Sam....
GIANTS – Aborigines. —Biblical Data: Word derived from the Greek γίγας (in LXX.), denoting a man of extraordinary stature; in the English versions the rendering for three Hebrew words: (1) "Nefilim" (see Fall of Angels), Gen. vi. 4a, an...
GIANTS – Aborigines. —Biblical Data: Word derived from the Greek γίγας (in LXX.), denoting a man of extraordinary stature; in the English versions the rendering for three Hebrew words: (1) "Nefilim" (see Fall of Angels), Gen. vi. 4a, an...
GIBEAH – The name of several cities situated on hills. The difficulty of keeping these distinct is increased by the fact that sometimes "Geba" is used for "Gibeah," and vice versa (see Geba). In one passage, however, Isa. x. 29, "Geba"...
GIBEON AND GIBEONITES – Gibeon was one of the four cities of the Hivites, reckoned in Josh. xviii. 25 among the cities of Benjamin. That it was not, however, wholly in the possession of the Israelites until a late period is shown by Josh. ix. and II...
GIDEON – Biblical Data: Son of Joash the Abiezrite; also called "Jerubbaal" (Judges vi. 32; "Jerubbesheth" in II Sam. xi. 21); one of the prominent judges of Israel. His story is told in Judges vi.-viii. Midianites and other Bedouin...
GIFTS – Biblical Data: The interchange of gifts was a custom common among the early Israelites in the ordinary transactions of life as well as at all family celebrations. The subordinate gave presents to his superior "to smooth his...
GIHON – 1. The second river of Eden, surrounding the whole land of Cush or Ethiopia (Gen. ii. 13). Its identification has been a matter of dispute among Biblical exegetes and critics. Josephus (" Ant. " i. 1, § 3) identifies Gihon with...