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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
GOVERNMENT – Biblical Data: The only kind of political institution extant among the Israelites before the time of the Kings was the division into tribes, according to tradition twelve in number corresponding to the sons of Jacob, who were...
GROVES AND SACRED TREES – By many Oriental as well as Occidental peoples, whether of Semitic or non-Semitic stock, groves and single trees (oaks, terebinths, tamarisks, palms, etc.) were regarded and revered as favorite abodes of the gods, and were...
GUNI – 1. A son of Naphtali (Gen. xlvi. 24; I Chron. vii. 13), and founder of the family of the Gunites (Num. xxvi. 48). In Hebrew, "Guni" is used for the individual and for the family. 2. A descendant of Gad, and the father of Abdiel,...
HABAIAH – Head of a family of priests who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel; not being able to prove their genealogy, they were excluded from the priesthood (Ezra ii. 61; Neh. vii. 63). In I Esd. v. 38 the name is given as "Obdia."E....
HABAKKUK – Prophet; author of the eighth in the collection of the twelve minor prophetical books. The etymology of the name of the prophet is not clear. It seems to be a loan-word representing the Assyrian "hambaḳûḳu," a garden-plant...
HABAKKUK, BOOK OF – Contents. —Biblical Data: One of the twelve minor prophetical books. It readily falls into two parts: (1) ch. i. and ii.; (2) ch. iii. The first part is a "massa" (a condemnatory prophecy). But contrary to the usage in other...
HABAZINIAH – The head of a family of Rechabites. His grandson Jaazaniah was a chief of the Rechabites in the time of Jeremiah (Jer. xxxv. 3).E. G. H. M. Sel.
HABOR – River flowing through the land of Gozan; the classical "Chaboras." To the banks of this river Tiglath-pileser carried "the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought them unto Halah and Habor" (I...
HACHILAH, HILL OF – A hill in the wooded country of the wilderness of Ziph, where David hid himself from Saul (I Sam. xxiii. 19; xxvi. 1, 3).E. G. H. M. Sel.
HACHMONI, THE SON OF – 1. Jashobeam, one of David's mighty men (I Chron. xi. 11). 2. Jehiel, tutor of David's children (ib. xxvii.32). The former, however, occurs in the English Authorized Version as "an Hachmonite." In the parallel list of II Sam....
HADAD – Name of an Aramaic, and possibly of an Edomitish, deity. It occurs as an element in personal names, for instance, in "Hadadezer," "Benhadad" (see Baudissin, "Studien zur Semitischen Religionsgesch." i. 310). In these compound...
HADAD – Name of several Idumean kings, the meaning of which is "a loud noise." It was primitively the name of an Aramean divinity and formed a part of various Aramean theophorous names, as "Hadadrimmon" and "Hadadezer." The name was...
HADADEZER – Son of Rehob, and King of Aram-zobah, who, while he was on his way to establish his dominion on the Euphrates, was defeated by David, suffering great loss in chariots, horses, and men (II Sam. viii. 3-12; I Chron. xviii. 3, 4; I...
HADASSAH – Earlier name of Esther, Mordecai's cousin (Esth. ii. 7). The name "Hadassah" occurs here only. It is not given by the Septuagint. In the Vulgate the name is given as "Edissa." See Esther.E. G. H. B. P.
HADID – City mentioned with Lod and Ono (Ezra ii. 33; Neh. vii. 37; xi. 34, 35). From the last-given passage it would seem that Hadid was a Benjamite town, though it is not given in the list in Joshua (xviii. 21-28). An "Adida"...
HADLAI – An Ephraimite; father of Amasa, who was one of the chiefs of his tribe in the time of Pekah (II Chron. xxviii. 12).E. G. H. M. Sel.
HADORAM – 1. Son of Joktan; progenitor of one of the Arabian tribes (Gen. x. 27; I Chron. i. 21). 2. Son of Tou, King of Hamath; sent by his father to congratulate David after his victory over Hadadezer, bearing presents in gold, silver,...
HADRACH – Name occurring in Zech. ix. 1. The connection seems to indicate that it was the country in which Damascus was situated, or a neighboring locality. The Septuagint translates the name as "Sedrach." It has been suggested that...
HAFṬARAH – That portion of the Prophets read immediately after the reading of the Torah in the morning services on Sabbaths, feast-days, and the Ninth of Ab, and in the afternoon services on fast-days. The passage chosen usually contains...
HAGAB – Family of Nethinim, which returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 46). In I Esd. v. 30 the name is given as "Agaba."E. G. H. M. Sel.
HAGABA, HAGABAH – Family of Nethinim, which came back from captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra ii. 45; Neh. vii. 48). In I Esd. v. 29 the name is given as "Graba."E. G. H. M. Sel.
HAGAR – Biblical Data: Egyptian handmaid of Sarah, and mother of Ishmael. According to one narrative, Sarah, having no children, requested Abraham to take Hagar as concubine, so that she might adopt her children (comp. Gen. xxx. 3,...
HAGARENES, HAGARITES – A nomadic people dwelling in the east of Palestine, against whom the tribe of Reuben was victorious in the time of Saul, seizing their tents and taking possession of their territory throughout the east of Gilead (I Chron. v....
HAGGAI – Judean prophet of the early post-exilic period; contemporary with Zechariah (Ezra v. 1; III Ezra [I Esd.] vi. 1, vii. 3).(Hilprecht, in "Pal. Explor. Fund Quarterly," Jan., 1898, p. 55). = "Aggeus" in I Esd.;...
HAGGAI, BOOK OF – One of the so-called minor prophetical books of the Old Testament. It contains four addresses. The first (i. 2-11), dated the first day of the sixth month of the second year of Darius Hystaspes (520 B.C.), described as directed...