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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
RAHAB – Biblical Data: A woman of Jericho who sheltered the spies sent by Joshua to search out the land. Having arrived at Jericho, the two spies remained at Rahab's house, situated in the wall of the city and having a window on the...
RAIN – Biblical Data: Palestine did not require such laborious artificial irrigation as Egypt; Yhwh supplied it with, "water of the rain of heaven" (Deut. xi. 11). The harvests were regarded as the gift of Yhwh, since they depended on...
RAINBOW – Biblical Data: This phenomenon of nature is mentioned but rarely in the Old Testament. The beauty of the rainbow is dwelt upon (Ecclus. [Sirach] xliii. 11 et seq., 1. 7), and the glory surrounding Yhwh is compared to the...
RAMAH – Word (meaning "height") of frequent occurrence as an element in the place-names of the mountain districts of Palestine; as, Ramath-lehi; Ramath-or Ramothnegeb; Ramathor Ramoth-gilead; and Ramathmizpeh. It occurs also in the form...
RAMATH-LEHI – Place on the frontier between Judah and Philistia; mentioned only in the story of Samson (Judges xv. 9, 14, 17). The name, (= "Jaw-Bone Height"), is explained by the tradition that Samson slew there 1,000 Philistines with the...
RAMATHAIM-ZOPHIM – Birthplace of Samuel according to the present text of I Sam. i. 1, which, however, is corrupt. The usual interpretation, "Ramathaim of the Zophites," is an impossible one, since it would be contrary to Hebrew linguistic usage to...
RAMOTH-GILEAD – One of the cities of refuge, in the east-Jordan district, in the tribe of Gad; apportioned to the Levites (Josh. xx. 8, xxi. 38; Deut. iv. 43; I Chron. vi. 80). When Solomon divided the country into districts, Ramoth-gilead was...
RAVEN – The first bird specifically mentioned in the Old Testament (Gen. viii. 7), where it is referred to in connection with Noah and the ark. It is included among the unclean brids in Lev. xi. 15 and Deut. xiv. 14, where the term...
REBEKAH – Biblical Data: Daughter of Bethuel, sister of Laban, and wife of Isaac (Gen. xxii. 23, xxiv. 29, 67). Abraham sent his servant Eliezer to seek a wife for Isaac. Arriving with his attendants at Aram-naharaim, Eliezer stopped near...
RED SEA – References to the Red Sea under that name are not found earlier than the Apocrypha (Judith v. 12; Wisdom x. 18, xix. 7; I Macc. iv. 9). The name refers to the body of water, termed "Yam Suf" in all other passages, crossed by the...
REED – Rendering given in the English versions for several words used to designate rush-like water-plants of various kinds. These words are: (1) "Gome"; the Cyperus papyrus of Linnæus. (2) "Suf" (Ex. ii. 3; Isa. xix. 6); identified by...
REFORM JUDAISM FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE REFORM JEW – Reform" a Misnomer. By Reform Judaism is denoted that phase of Jewish religious thought which, in the wake of the Mendelssohnian period and in consequence of the efforts made during the fifth decade of the nineteenth century to...
REHOBOAM – Biblical Data: Son of Solomon by Naamah the Ammonitess (I Kings xiv. 21), and his successor on the throne in Jerusalem. Solomon's administrative policy had fostered dangerous principles. His ambition for the magnificence and...
REMNANT OF ISRAEL – View of Isaiah. Concept of frequent occurrence in the utterances of the Prophets, and closely interwoven in their peculiar construction of Israel's history and destiny. The idea is indicated in the name of Isaiah's son...
REPHAIM, VALE OF – Fertile plain in Judah; the scene of David's battles with the Philistines (Isa. xvii. 5; II Sam. v. 18 et seq., xxiii. 13). According to II Samuel (l.c.), it must have been in the vicinity of Beth-lehem. The boundaryline between...
REPTILES – In the Biblical account of creation the "creeping things" are divided into the "moving" creatures of the sea (Gen. i. 20) and "everything that creepeth upon the ground" (Gen. i. 25). As a group parallel to the "beasts" and the...
REZIN – Last king of the Damascene dynasty; slain in 732 B.C. With Pekah, King of Israel, he planned a campaign against Ahaz, King of Judah (734; II. Kings xvi. 5; Isa. vii. 1-8). The two kings feared Tiglath-pileser, King of Assyria;...
RIGHT AND RIGHTEOUSNESS – Renderings given in the English versions of the Hebrew root "ẓadaḳ" and its derivatives "ẓaddiḳ," "ẓedeḳ," "ẓedaḳh." The use of "righteous" as a translation for "yashar" (="upright") is less frequent. "Just," "justice,"...
RIMMON – 1. Town of the tribe of Zebulun, on the northeast frontier (Josh. xix. 13, R. V.); the Septuagint renders it, more correctly, "Rimonah." Probably it is identical with the Levite city of Rimmon (R. V. "Rimmono"; I Chron. vi. 77),...
RIZPAH – Daughter of Aiah and concubine of Saul. After Saul's death Rizpah, with the other women of his harem (comp. II Sam. iii. 13), remained with his son and successor, Ish-bosheth, but Abner, the general of Saul, took possession of...
SABBATH – The seventh day of the week; the day of rest.—Biblical Data: On the completion of His creative work God blessed and hallowed the seventh day as the Sabbath (Gen. ii. 1-3). The Decalogue in Exodus (xx. 8) reverts to this fact as...
SABBATH – The seventh day of the week; the day of rest.—Biblical Data: On the completion of His creative work God blessed and hallowed the seventh day as the Sabbath (Gen. ii. 1-3). The Decalogue in Exodus (xx. 8) reverts to this fact as...
SABBATH – The seventh day of the week; the day of rest.—Biblical Data: On the completion of His creative work God blessed and hallowed the seventh day as the Sabbath (Gen. ii. 1-3). The Decalogue in Exodus (xx. 8) reverts to this fact as...
SABBATH AND SUNDAY – Early Christian Practise. A brief consideration is desirable as to why and when the keeping of the seventh day as the Sabbath ceased among Christian churches. That Jesus and his disciples kept the seventh day, and without vital...
SACRIFICE – The act of offering to a deity for the purpose of doing homage, winning favor, or securing pardon; that which is offered or consecrated. The late generic term for "sacrifice" in Hebrew is , the verb being , used in connection...