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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
SHOWBREAD – Composition and Presentation. —Biblical Data: Twelve cakes, with two-tenths of an ephah in each, and baked of fine flour, which were ranged in two rows (or piles) on the "pure" table that stood before Yhwh and remained exposed...
SHUSHAN – Ancient capital of Susiana or Elam, and the winter residence of the kings of Persia; situated between the Choaspes (modern Ab-i Kerkhah) and the Eulæus (the "Ulai" of Dan. viii. 2; modern Shaur), fifteen miles southeast of...
SIBBECHAI – Captain under David who came from the town of Shushan, near Ephrath-Bethlehem. He distinguished himself by overcoming a Philistine giant (II Sam. xxi. 18; I Chron. xx. 4). He is mentioned also in I Chron. xi. 29, xxvii. 11, as...
SIDDIM, VALE OF – The etymology of "Siddim" is uncertain (see G. A. Smith, "Historical Geog. of the Holy Land," p. 503), though Targ. Onḳ. renders it "vale of fields." It is mentioned in Gen. xiv. 3, 8, 10, verse 3 identifying it with the Dead...
SIHON – Biblical Data: Amoritic king of the east-Jordan country, whose kingdom extended from the Arnon in the south to the Jabbok in the north, and from the Jordan in the west to the desert in the east (Num. xxi. 24; Judges xi. 22)....
SILOAM INSCRIPTION – The inscription on the Siloam conduit; the earliest long ancient Hebrew inscription that has been found at Jerusalem—one may even say in Palestine—and so far the only really important one. It commemorates the digging of the...
SIMEON, TRIBE OF – Biblical Data: This tribe traces its descent from Simeon, second son of Jacob by Leah. He was the brother of Levi and Dinah, according to Gen. xxxvi. 25, xlix. 5, but elsewhere (ib. xxx. 1-9, xlvi. 8-15) it is stated that he had...
SIMEON, TRIBE OF – Biblical Data: This tribe traces its descent from Simeon, second son of Jacob by Leah. He was the brother of Levi and Dinah, according to Gen. xxxvi. 25, xlix. 5, but elsewhere (ib. xxx. 1-9, xlvi. 8-15) it is stated that he had...
SIN – 1. Egyptian city mentioned in Ezek. xxx. 15 et seq.; probably the ancient frontier fortress of Pelusium (so cited in Jerome); the modern Farama or Tine.2. Desert on the Sinaitic Peninsula, situated "between Elim and Sinai" (Ex....
SIN-OFFERING – Biblical Data: The sin-offering proper is a sacrifice consisting of either a beast or a fowl and offered on the altar to atone for a sin committed unwittingly. The rules concerning the sin-offering are as follows: If the...
SIPPAI – Philistine giant, one of the sons of Rapha (A. V. "the giant"); slain at Gezer by Sibbechai the Hushathite, one of David's warriors (I Chron. xx. 4). In the parallel passage, II Sam. xxi. 18, he is called "Saph," and the place...
SNAIL – Rendering given in the English versions for "shabbelul," which occurs only in Ps. lviii. 9 (A. V. 8). An equivalent rendering is given bythe Targum and the Talmud; the Septuagint and Vulgate give "wax." The idea of melting away,...
SOLOMON – Third king of all Israel; reigned from about 971 to 931 B.C ; second son of David and Bath-sheba (II Sam. xii. 23-25). He was called Jedidiah (= "beloved of Yhwh") by Nathan the prophet, the Chronicler (I Chron. xxii. 9)...
SOLOMON – Third king of all Israel; reigned from about 971 to 931 B.C ; second son of David and Bath-sheba (II Sam. xii. 23-25). He was called Jedidiah (= "beloved of Yhwh") by Nathan the prophet, the Chronicler (I Chron. xxii. 9)...
SOLOMON – Third king of all Israel; reigned from about 971 to 931 B.C ; second son of David and Bath-sheba (II Sam. xii. 23-25). He was called Jedidiah (= "beloved of Yhwh") by Nathan the prophet, the Chronicler (I Chron. xxii. 9)...
SON OF GOD – Term applied to an angel or demigod, one of the mythological beings whose exploits are described in Gen. vi. 2-4, and whose ill conduct was among the causes of the Flood; to a judge or ruler (Ps. lxxxii. 6, "children of the Most...
SON OF MAN – In Contrast to Deity. The rendering for the Hebrew "ben adam," applied to mankind in general, as opposed to and distinct from non-human relationship; expressing also the larger, unlimited implications of humanity as...
SONG OF MOSES – Biblical Data: Poem found in Deut. xxxii. 1-43. It is said that "Moses spake in the ears of all the assembly of Israel the words of this song" (Deut. xxxi. 30, R. V.; comp. ib. xxxii. 44). The song exhibits striking originality...
SONG OF SONGS, THE – One of the Five Megillot. The Hebrew title, , is commonly understood to mean "the most excellent of songs, composed by Solomon" (not "one of the songs composed by Solomon"); the title, however, is later than the poem, in which...
SPARROW – Rendering given in the English versions (Ps. lxxxiv. 4 [A. V. 3], cii. 8 [A. V. 7]) for the word "ẓippor," which denotes birds in general, but is used especially of small passerine birds. Four species of sparrow are very...
SPICES – Aromatic vegetable substances used in preparing food or in compounding salves or perfumes.With the exception of salt, no condiments were known to the ancient Jews, and even cinnamon, with which the Hebrews were familiar, was...
SPINNING – Egyptian Spinners. Spinning and weaving are arts of extreme antiquity, dating back even to prehistoric times. The Egyptians were especially expert in them, their white linen textures being of such fineness as to be diaphanous,...
STAFF – Herodotus (i. 195) and Strabo (xvi. 746) assert that among the Babylonians every man carried a ring and a staff, which latter was decorated at the upper end with a carved representation of a flower or something similar. It seems...
STONE AND STONE-WORSHIP – Maẓẓebah. Cromlech Near 'Amman.(From a photograph by the Palestine Exploration Fund.)Sacred stones are mentioned with great frequency in the Old Testament; they were erected by Jacob at Beth-el (Gen. xxviii. 18; comp. xxxi. 13),...
STORK – Unclean bird (Lev. xi. 19; Deut. xiv. 18). The name (comp. Latin, "pia avis") alludes to the filial piety and devotion attributed by the ancients to the stork (comp. Aristotle, "Historia Animalium," ix. 14, 1). Both the white...