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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
STROPHIC FORMS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT – Inflicting Stripes in a Dutch Synagogue of the Early Eighteenth Century.(From Pleart.)The strophe may be defined as a union of several lines into one rhythmic whole. Certain evidence points to the occurrence of strophic...
SUCCOTH – 1. The first stopping-place of the Israelites on their way out of Egypt (Ex. xii. 37, xiii. 20; Num. xxxiii. 5 et seq.); probably the Egyptian Thuku, name of the district of Pithom and also of the fortress itself (see Ebers in...
SUN – Early Conceptions of It. —Biblical Data: The conceptions of the Hebrews with regard to physical phenomena were those that obtained among their neighbors, the sun being considered as a torch or light ("ma'or") suspended in the...
SUN – Early Conceptions of It. —Biblical Data: The conceptions of the Hebrews with regard to physical phenomena were those that obtained among their neighbors, the sun being considered as a torch or light ("ma'or") suspended in the...
SWALLOW – Rendering in the English versions for "deror" (Ps. lxxxiv. 4 [A. V. 3]; Prov. xxvi. 2) and for "sus" or "sis" (Isa. xxxviii. 14: Jer. viii. 7 [A. V. "crane"]). There are about ten species of swallow (Hirundinidœ) and the closely...
SWAN – The rendering of the Authorized Version for "tinshemet" (Lev. xi. 18; Deut. xiv. 16). The Revised Version, more correctly, gives "horned owl" (see Lizard; Mole; Owl).Two species of swan have been found in Palestine, the whooper,...
SWINE – Rendering in the English versions of the Hebrew "ḥazir." The swine is enumerated among the unclean animals (Lev. xi. 7; Deut. xiv. 8); the use of its flesh as food is branded as apostasy (Isa. Ixv. 4; lxvi. 3, 17); and the...
SWORD – The sword hung at the hip from a sword-belt (I Sam. xvii. 39; xxv. 13; II Sam. xx. 8), probably on the left side, Judges iii. 16, 21, notwithstanding. It was kept in a sheath ("ta'ar," I Sam. xvii. 51; "nadan," I Chron. xxi. 27;...
SYCAMORE – A medium-sized bushy tree of Syria and Egypt, allied to the common fig. It is often mentioned in the Bible (Amos vii. 14; I Kings x. 27; Isa. ix. 9, 11; Ps. lxxviii. 47; I Chron. xxvii. 28; II Chron. i. 15, ix. 27), and still...
SYRIA – Country in Asiatic Turkey. The terms "Syria" and "Syrians" do not occur in Hebrew; they are found first in the Greek period. FollowingNöldeke, these terms are usually explained as abbreviations of "Assyria" and "Assyrians." The...
TABLES OF THE LAW – Tablets containing the Ten Commandments.—Biblical Data: Moses, bidden to go up to God on the mountain to receive "tables of stone, and a law ["Torah"], and commandments ["miẓwot"]" (Ex. xxiv. 12, R. V.), is given "two tables of...
TABLES OF THE LAW – Tablets containing the Ten Commandments.—Biblical Data: Moses, bidden to go up to God on the mountain to receive "tables of stone, and a law ["Torah"], and commandments ["miẓwot"]" (Ex. xxiv. 12, R. V.), is given "two tables of...
TABLES OF THE LAW – Tablets containing the Ten Commandments.—Biblical Data: Moses, bidden to go up to God on the mountain to receive "tables of stone, and a law ["Torah"], and commandments ["miẓwot"]" (Ex. xxiv. 12, R. V.), is given "two tables of...
TAXATION – Biblical Data: The Bible gives scant information concerning the secular or political taxes of the Jews. Practically all that can be gathered is the following: Just as Abraham (Gen. xiv. 20) voluntarily gave a tenth "of all"...
ṬEBET – Tenth ecclesiastical and fourth civil month; it invariably has twenty-nine days. The name, like those of the other months, appears to be taken from the Assyro-Babylonians, who called their tenth month, described as the month of...
THEOCRACY – Derived from Josephus. System of state organization and government in which God is recognized as the ruler in whose name authority is exercised by His chosen agents, the Priests or the Prophets. The word in its technical meaning...
THEODOTION – Used in Daniel for Septuagint. One of the Greek translators of the Old Testament (see Jew. Encyc. iii. 187, s.v. Bible Translations). He is the supposed author of one of the two extant Greek versions of the Book of Daniel and...
TOLA – 1. A son of Issachar who had journeyed to Egypt with Jacob (Gen. xlvi. 13). In the census of the people made by Moses and the high priest Eleazar after the plague the Tolaites appear as a tribe (Num. xxvi. 23), and during the...
TOPHET – Old Testament term used chiefly by Jeremiah (vii. 31, 32; xix. 6, 11, 12, 13, 14) and once in II Kings (xxiii. 10) to designate a place in one of the valleys just outside the walls of Jerusalem. The meaning of the word is much...
TORTOISE – Rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word "ẓab" (Lev. xi. 29; see Lizard). Some commentators assume "gallim" in Hos. xii. 12 to mean "tortoises," a view which has the support of the Septuagint, the Peshiṭta, and old...
TOWER – A building of strength or magnificence (Isa. ii. 15; Cant. iv. 4, vii. 4), and, with a more limited connotation, a watch-tower in a garden or vineyard or in a fortification. It was customary to erect watch-towers in the...
TREE OF LIFE – Biblical Data: According to Gen. ii. 9, there stood in the midst of the Garden of Eden a "tree of life," apparently by the side of the "tree of knowledge of good and evil." Although Gen. iii. 3 seems to presuppose but one tree...
TRIBES, THE TWELVE – The Lists. The individual tribes having been treated under their respective captions, it is proposed to discuss in the present article the theories concerning the nature, number, and origin of the tribes of Israel. The...
TUBAL-CAIN – Brother of Jabal and Jubal, sons of Lamech, who appear to have been the originators of several industries and arts. The correctness of the Masoretic text ( ) of Gen. iv. 21-22, describing Tubal-cain, is in dispute. Holzinger and...
TUBAL-CAIN – Brother of Jabal and Jubal, sons of Lamech, who appear to have been the originators of several industries and arts. The correctness of the Masoretic text ( ) of Gen. iv. 21-22, describing Tubal-cain, is in dispute. Holzinger and...