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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS – German Biblical critic and Semitist; born at Hameln May 17, 1844; educated in theology and Semitics at Göttingen (Ph.D. 1870), where he became privat-docent in the theological faculty in 1870. Two years later he was called as...
WEST – One of the "four skirts" ( , Isa. xi. 12; Ezek. vii. 2; Job xxxvii. 3, xxxviii. 13) or "four corners," known also as the "four ends" (Jer. xlix. 36) or "four winds" (Ezek. xxxvii. 9; Dan. viii. 8, xi. 4), into which the Hebrews,...
WHALE – A cetaceous mammal. Several species of cetacea are found in the Mediterranean as well as in the Red Sea. In the Authorized Version of the Bible the Hebrew "tannin" is often rendered "whale"; while the Revised Version has...
WHEAT – The chief breadstuff of Palestine in both ancient and modern times. It has been observed that the cultivation of wheat indicates a higher stage of civilization than the cultivation of barley alone. Barley bread is, therefore,...
WHEEL – In the Bible wheels are mentioned in connection with ordinary wagons, as well as with Chariots. Mention is made also of the thrashing-wheel (Prov. xx. 26; Isa. xxviii. 27), and of the potters' wheel or disk (Jer. xviii. 3; see...
WILD ASS – Rendering used in Gen. xvi. 12 (R. V.), Job vi. 5, xi. 12, xxiv. 5, xxxix. 5, Ps. civ. 11, Isa. xxxii. 14, Jer. xiv. 6, and Hos. viii. 9 for the Hebrew "pere," and in Jer. ii. 24 for "pereh";in Job xxxix. 5 for the Hebrew...
WILDERNESS – An examination of the Hebrew terms rendered "wilderness" or "desert" in the English versions shows that these translations are inadequate and misleading. "Ḥorbah" implies violent destruction; and it is more exactly rendered by...
WILDERNESS, WANDERINGS IN THE – Stages of Wanderings. —Biblical Data: Next to the Exodus, the remembrance of the wanderings in the desert for a period corresponding to the life of a generation (see Forty) is central to the historic consciousness of Israel....
WILLOW – Any tree or shrub of the genus Salix. Willows and poplars are numerous in Palestine. In all regions the white willow (Salix alba) and the Euphrates poplar (Populus Euphratica) occur with great frequency, while the crack-willow...
WINDOWS – The climate of Palestine and the customs of the ancient and the modern Orient alike rendered the house less important than it is in the Occident, since it was more a sleeping apartment than a place for work, or even for...
WINDS – Ancient Hebrew literature recognizes only four winds-north, south, east, and west, having no names for those from intermediate points, so that such a designation as "north" has a wide range of application. The dwelling-places of...
WINE – Biblical Data: The juice of the grape is the subject of special praise in the Scriptures. The "vine tree" is distinguished from the other trees in the forest (Ezek. xv. 2). The fig-tree is next in rank to the vine (Deut. viii....
WITCHCRAFT – Witchcraft" and "sorcery" are the terms used in the Bible to designate the practise of the arts of divination, which were tabooed by orthodox religious sentiment. As this orthodox sentiment was not a constant quantity, practises...
WOLF – The wolf (Canis lupus) is still found in Palestine, where the animals prowl in pairs or droves about sheepfolds at night. As a type of boldness, ferocity, and bloodthirstiness, it is mentioned in Gen. xlix. 27; Isa. xi. 6, lxv....
WORM – Rimmah" and "tole'ah" are the terms most frequently employed in the Bible to connote not only the earthworm, but any elongated crawling creature, such as the maggot, caterpillar, larvaof an insect, and the like. Thus, in the...
WREATH – Garland placed on the head as a token of honor. The wealthy bridegroom and bride, on the day of their nuptials, were ornamented with crowns of precious metal and jewels, while the poor adorned themselves with twisted bands of...
XERXES – Son of Darius, King of Persia (485-465 B.C.). His name, which is Khshayarsha in Persian, Ikhshiyarshu (with variants) in Babylonian, and Ξέρξης in Greek, frequently occurs, in the Old Testament. It is often written with ו...
YARMUK – River of Palestine; its various sources rise in the mountains of Hauran and Jaulan; it flows generally west and empties into the Jordan four English miles south of the Lake of Gennesaret. Although it is narrow and shallow...
ZALMUNNA – Midianite king defeated and slain by Gideon (Judges viii. 5-7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21; Ps. lxxxiii. 12 [A. V. 11]). Zalmunna is always mentioned together with Zebah, who was also a Midianite king.E. G. H. B. P.
ZAPHNATH-PAANEAH – Name given by Pharaoh to Joseph (Gen. xli. 45). It seems to be an Egyptian name, but its etymology is in doubt. It is not plain on what (Hebrew ?) etymology the earliest explanations of Hebrew scholars were founded. Targum...
ZEBULUN – The sixth son of Leah (Gen. xxx. 20), and hence the name of the tribe descended from him (Num. i. 9, vii. 24, x. 16; Ps. lxviii. 28 [A. V. 27]). In the division of the land Zebulun was assigned districts north of Issachar (Josh....
ZECHARIAH – One of the Minor Prophets, to whom is attributed the collection of prophecies and apocalyptic visions constituting the book bearing his name. He was a son of Berechiah and a grandson of Iddo (Zech. i. 1), and was loosely called...
ZECHARIAH, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: Prophetical book composed of fourteen chapters; the eleventh in the order of the Minor Prophets, following Haggai and preceding Malachi. Ch. i.-viii. comprise three prophecies: (1) an introduction (i. 1-6); (2) a...
ZECHARIAH BEN JEHOIADA – Biblical Data: A reforming priest who lived under King Joash of Judah. He reproved the idolaters, announcing God's judgment against them; and a conspiracy was formed against him that resulted in his being stoned in the court of...
ZEDEKIAH – 1. One of the four hundred prophets (I Kings xxii. 11, 24, 25) whom Ahab summoned to inquire of them before Jehoshaphat whether he should attack the Syrians in battle at Ramoth-gilead. Zedekiah appeared as a rival of Micaiah,...