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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
GUMPLIN – German satirical poet of unknown date. The only poem of his that has been preserved is a satire of seven strophes, ending with a refrain in which he very wittily criticizes the inhabitants of the Rhine province. Although his...
GÜNZBURG, JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI – Russian Talmudist; lived at Brest-Litovsk in the second half of the seventeenth century and at the beginning of the eighteenth. His father officiated as rabbi of Brest from 1664 until 1685, and Joseph occupied for many years the...
HAAS, SIMḤAH BEN JOSHUA – Traveler and preacher; born in Dobrowitz, Bohemia, 1710; died in Brahilov 1768. He was father-in-law to Solomon Dubno, and was a preacher in Brahilov. In 1764 he wrote an account of his journey to Palestine, "Ahabat Ẓiyyon" or...
ONIAS – Name of several high priests at the time of the Second Temple. The sequence given them below is based on the statements of Josephus, which are unreliable, since Josephus did not have access to trustworthy sources.Onias I.: Son...
ḤABILLO (XABILLO), ELIJAH BEN JOSEPH (MAESTRO MANOEL) – Spanish philosopher; lived at Monzon, Aragon, in the second half of the fifteenth century. He was an admirer of the Christian scholastics, and studied Latin in order to translate into Hebrew some of their works, especially those...
ḤABILLO (CHAVILLO), ELISHA BEN SOLOMON – Venetian Talmudist of the eighteenth century; descendant of a prominent Palestinian family. Judah Chavillo is mentioned as a renowned Talmudist in the responsa "Darke No'am" (iii. 39) of Mordecai Levi of Cairo. Elisha was a...
ḤADITH – An Arabic word signifying "narrative" or "communication"; the name given to sayings traced to the prophet Mohammed, or to reports of his actions by eye-witnesses. The authenticity of the ḥadith depends upon the value of the...
HAGAR, HAGRIM – Names used by Jewish medieval writers to designate Hungary and the Hungarians. The expression "Ereẓ Hagar" occurs in Rashi on Yoma 11a, in a responsum of the French tosafist Isaac b. Abraham (died about 1200), and in the...
HEBRAISTS, CHRISTIAN – The work of Christian scholars in the field of Hebrew literature demands special treatment, not only as part of the history of Jewish literature itself, but also as an indication of the relation which existed between Jews and...
HAIDA, MOSES BEN JOSEPH – German mathematician; lived at Hamburg in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was a grandson of Samuel Haida, author of "Ziḳḳuḳin de-Nura." He was the author of "Sefer Ma'aseh Ḥarash we-Ḥosheb," an arithmetic, written...
HAIFA – Pilgrimages. Syrian seaport, at the foot of Mount Carmel, and ten kilometers from Acre. Near Haifa are two grottos, one associated with the name of the prophet Elijah, the second with that of Elisha. In Biblical times this...
ḤALAYO, DAVID BEN SAMUEL – Probably a son of the Samuel Ḥalayo of Bersak ( ) who was in correspondence with Simon ben Ẓemaḥ Duran. David, who was a ḥazzan or cantor, was a pupil of Simon Duran, and it was at his suggestion that the latter wrote the...
HA-MAZKIR – A bibliographical magazine published by M. Steinschneider, twenty-one volumes of which, covering the years 1858-82, were issued. Its full title reads: " : Hebräische Bibliographie: Blätter für Neuere und Aeltere Literatur des...
HAMADAN – Persian city; 160 miles west-southwest of Teheran. Hamadan is generally identified with the ancient Ecbatana, the Achmetha of the Bible, capital of Media Magna. It seems that the Jews settled there soon after its foundation and...
HAMMURABI – King of Shinar; perhaps identical with Abraham's contemporary, Amraphel, who is mentioned in Gen. xiv. 9; the sixth king in the first dynasty of Babylon. Hammurabi was the founder of the united Babylonian empire; he conquered...
HANANEEL BEN AMITTAI – Spiritual leader of the Jewish community of Oria, Italy, in the ninth century. He is said to have been descended from a Jerusalem family, members of which were taken to Italy by Titus. In the Ahimaaz Chronicle Hananeel is...
HANOVER – Capital of the Prussian province of the same name. Jews lived there as early as the first half of the fourteenth century, and they were well treated by the authorities. The municipal law ("Stadtrecht") of 1303 contained a...
ḤARITH IBN 'AMR – Yemenite king who embraced Judaism; born about 260; ascended the throne about 320; died about 330. Nothing is known of this king's history, as he is mentioned only by Abu al-Fida ("Historia Anteislamica," ed. Fleischer, p. 118),...
HARO – City in La Rioja, in the diocese of Calahorra, Spain. In the fifteenth century it contained a Jewish community, the members of which were engaged in agricultural, commercial, and industrial pursuits, particularly in tanning, and...
HARSELANI, ABRAHAM AL- – Karaite scholar; flourished in Babylonia in the tenth century. He is cited in Al-Hiti's chronicle as having disputed with the rabbinical authorities of his time. He is also quoted by Mordecai ben Nissim in the "Dod Mordekai" (p....
HASMONEANS – The family name of the Hasmonean dynasty originates with the ancestor of the house, ΑΣαμωναῖος (Josephus, "Ant." xii. 6, § 1; xiv. 16, § 4; xvi. 7, § 1) = or (Middot i. 6; Targ. Yer. to I Sam. ii. 4), who, according to...
HECKSCHER, SAMUEL BEN MEÏR – German scholar; lived at Altona in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; author of a work entitled "Ḳinah 'al Serefah," in Hebrew and German, on the great fire which raged at Altona in 1711 (see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl."...
Ḥasdai, ABU YUSUF (BEN ISAAC BEN EZRA) IBN SHAPRUT – Spanish physician, diplomat, and patron of Jewish science; born about 915 at Jaen; died 970 or 990 at Cordova. His father was a wealthy and learned Jew of Jaen. Ḥasdai acquired in his youth a thorough knowledge of Hebrew,...
ḤASDAI BEN SOLOMON – Spanish rabbi; born probably in Tudela. He was a pupil of R. Nissim Gerondi in Barcelona. His friend (and probably fellow pupil) Isaac b. Sheshet calls him the "Spanish worthy." He officiated as rabbi until 1379, when the plague...
HA-SHAḤAR – Hebrew monthly; published at Vienna from 1869 to 1884 by P. Smolenskin, who was also its editor. It resembled the German "Monatsschrift," containing scientific articles, essays, biographies, and narratives. It contained also...