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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
ḲOHELET MUSAR – Hebrew weekly; founded at Berlin in 1750 by Moses Mendelssohn (at that time he was not more than twenty-one) and T. Bock. Only two issues appeared; these contained philosophical and moral reflections of the Leibnitz-Wolff...
KOKABI, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM – German physician, a native of Ulm; lived at Ferrara in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. "Kokabi" is the Hebrew equivalent of his German name, "Stern"; in Latin his signature was "Stella." He was the author of a medical...
KOKEBE YIẒḤAḲ – Hebrew annual; published at Vienna from 1845 to 1872 by M. Stern, and from 1872 to 1873 by M. Weissmann (Chajes). The annual was devoted to literary history, philology, exegesis, and Hebrew poetry, and many able dissertations by...
ḲONṬRES – Usual designation, among the Tosafists, of Rashi's commentary on the Talmud. Rashi himself uses the expression once to designate a written Talmudic interpretation by his "old teacher" (Jacob b. Yaḳar on Giṭ. viii. 82a). In the...
KOREFF, SOLOMON – German Talmudist; born about 1700; died in Prague May 24, 1774. For more than forty years he presided over a large yeshibah at Prague. On the record of the appointment of Ezekiel Landau as chief rabbi of Prague (1754; see...
KOS – An island belonging to the Sporades group in the Ægean Sea near the Carian coast; known also as Meropis and Nymphæa. Diodorus Siculus (xv. 76) and Strabo (xiv. 657) describe it as a well-fortified port. Its position gave it a...
KOS – An island belonging to the Sporades group in the Ægean Sea near the Carian coast; known also as Meropis and Nymphæa. Diodorus Siculus (xv. 76) and Strabo (xiv. 657) describe it as a well-fortified port. Its position gave it a...
KRESPIA NAḲDAN – Scribe of the thirteenth century. He is recorded as having copied in March, 1243, a manuscript of Maimonides' "Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah" now in the British Museum. The same manuscript contains an "azharah," with an acrostic on Krespia's...
KRONIK (KRONIKER), MOSES BEN AKIBA OF GLOGAU – Rabbi of Flatow (Zlotowo); lived in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Tefillah we-Todah," hymns and prayers for the community of Glogau on the occasion of the raising of the siege on April 24, 1814,...
KUFAH, AL- – Ruined city of Asiatic Turkey, 88 miles south of Bagdad, situated on an affluent of the Euphrates; founded by Omar on the ruins of Ctesiphon in 639. A strip of land near it was given by him to the Jewish exiles from Arabia. An...
LABI – A Turkish family of rabbis. The most prominent members were:David b. Joseph ibn Labi: Turkish scholar of the sixteenth century; lived together with his brother Moses at Salonica, where his father was rabbi (c. 1540); the two...
LABI, JOSEPH IBN VIDAL – Prominent Spanish scholar and orator; son of the philosopher Solomon ibn Labi; lived at Saragossa. He was one of the twenty-five rabbis who by order of Pope Benedict XIII. assisted at the disputation of Tortosa (Feb. 7, 1413 =...
LABI, SIMON – Spanish rabbi and scholar of the sixteenth century. He intended to go to the Holy Land, but when he arrived at Tripoli he found its Jewish community in such a state of disorganization that he deemed it more meritorious to remain...
LAGARDE, PAUL ANTON DE – German Orientalist; born in Berlin Nov. 2, 1827; died in Göttingen Dec. 22, 1891. His father was Wilhelm Bötticher; and his earlier writings (1847-52) were published under the name "P. A. Bötticher," the name De Lagarde, which...
LAMEGO – City in Portugal. Its Jewry was formerly situated in the Cruz da Pedra street, the present Rua Nova. Lamego was the meeting-place of many rich secret Jews or Neo-Christians, who were bitterly hated by the Christian population of...
LAMPON – Enemy of the Jews; lived in the first century at Alexandria. During the reign of Caligula an outbreak against the Jews occurred at Alexandria in the year 38, which Flaccus, then governor of Egypt, made no attempt to check. Philo...
LANDAU – A family name said to have been derived from the name of a city situated in western Germany.The name is found largely among Polish Jews, who probably were expelled from that city about the middle of the sixteenth century (see...
LANGUEDOC – Ancient province of France corresponding to the present departments of Tarn, Aude, Gard, and Ardèche, with parts of Haute-Loire, Haute-Garonne, and Tarn-et-Garonne. It was divided into two parts: Higher Languedoc, having for its...
LANIADO – Sephardic family settled in Italy and the East; the best-known members are:Abraham ben Isaac Laniado: Oriental scholar of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; born in Aleppo; a contemporary of Joseph Caro, whose Talmudical...
LAODICEA – 1. Laodicea ad Lycum: Town in Phrygia on the River Lycus. Jews lived there, Antiochus the Great having transported 2,000 Jewish families from Babylonia to Phrygia (Josephus, "Ant." xii. 3, § 4). Flaccus ordered the confiscation...
LAPIDARIA – Writings giving the qualities of precious and other stones, mostly composed in the Middle Ages. The rarest stones and minerals were in ancient times regarded as having special and often magical qualities. For those contained in...
LA ROCHELLE – City and seaport of France; capital of the department of Charente-Inférieure; situated on the Atlantic coast. Its small Jewish community made itself conspicuous in the third decade of the thirteenth century by the exploits of...
LAS LEYES, JACOB DE – Spanish compiler. He was commissioned by the son of Alfonso X. the Wise to compile an ethical work for the use of his pupil, the infante Don Alfonso Fernandez. He, accordingly, transcribed "Flores de Derecho," a painstaking...
LATERAN COUNCILS – Councils of the Church held at Rome in the papal palace on Lateran Hill, whence their title. Those affecting Jewish history are the third (1179) and fourth (1215). At the former or third Lateran Council the Church law with...
LEIBZOLL – Rate of Toll. A special toll which the Jews had to pay in most of the European states in the Middle Ages and up to the beginning of the nineteenth century. The origin of the Leibzoll may be traced to the political position of...