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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
LEIBZOLL – Rate of Toll. A special toll which the Jews had to pay in most of the European states in the Middle Ages and up to the beginning of the nineteenth century. The origin of the Leibzoll may be traced to the political position of...
LEIRIA – City of Portugal. In 1378 its Jews complained to the king that they were attacked and maltreated by the Christian inhabitants, especially during Holy Week. A Hebrew printing-press was established here in the house of Samuel...
LEMBERGER, JUDAH LÖB – Judæo-German author of the seventeenth century. He was probably the son of the publisher Abraham Lemberger of Prague. Judah Löb Lemberger was the author of a work in Judæo-German, entitled "Ein Hübsch Göttlich Büchel" (Prague,...
LEMMLEIN (LÄMMLIN), ASHER – Pretended forerunner of the Messiah. He appeared in Istria, near Venice, in 1502, and announced the coming of the Messiah in that very year, provided the Jews showed repentance and practised charity. Having gained many adherents...
LEO X. (GIOVANNI DE MEDICI) – Two hundred and twenty-fourth pope; born at Florence Dec. 11, 1475; elected March 11, 1513; died Dec. 1, 1521. His pontificate was very favorable for the Jews in general and for the Jews of Rome in particular. The latter saw in...
LEO HEBRÆUS (Abravanel, Judah) – Physician, philosopher, and poet; born in Lisbon in the second half of the fifteenth century, and died at Venice in 1535. He accompanied his father, Isaac Abravanel, when the latter went to Spain and afterward to Naples, and...
LEON – Ancient Spanish kingdom, bounded by Old Castile, Portugal, and Galicia. The Saracens ruled here until driven out by the Spaniards, who founded a kingdom of their own, which in 1218 was incorporated with Castile. In this kingdom...
LEON JOSEPH OF CARCASSONNE – Physician; lived toward the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He devoted himself to the translation from the Latin into Hebrew of medical works. Among his numerous translations three are still...
LEON HA-LEVI – Provençal Jew who wrote a Purim parody under the pseudonym Labi ha-Levi because he feared that the Orthodox Jews would condemn his work. The treatise, called "Megillat Setarim," on "Midrash ha-Nabi ha-Labi ha-Lewi" (Venice,...
LEON, MESSER DAVID BEN MESSER – Italian rabbi; flourished in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He studied at Naples in the school of his father, Messer Leon, author of "Libnat ha-Sappir," and received at the age of eighteen his rabbinical diploma from...
LEON (JUDAH ARYEH) OF MODENA – Italian scholar, rabbi, and poet; son of Isaac of Modena and Diana Rachel; born April 23, 1571, at Venice; died there March 24, 1648. He was a descendant of a prominent French family. His grandfather Mordecai became...
MEḲIẒE NIRDAMIM – International society for the publication of old Hebrew books and manuscripts. It was established first at Lyck, Germany, in 1864, under the direction of Rabbi Nathan Adler, Sir Moses Montefiore, and Joseph Zedner (London),...
LEONTE (JUDAH) BEN MOSES – Roman rabbi; died in 1216. In the name of the community of Rome he sent a halakic decision to Judah ben Kalonymus of Speyer for approval("Shibbole ha-Leḳeṭ," ii. 75; comp. Buber's introduction, note 87). The Roman manuscript...
LEONTOPOLIS – Place in the nome of Heliopolis, Egypt, situated 180 stadia from Memphis; famous as containing a Jewish sanctuary, the only one outside of Jerusalem where sacrifices were offered. Aside from a somewhat uncertain allusion of the...
LERIDA – City in Catalonia, which as early as the fourteenth century had an important Jewish community possessed of several privileges. Thus, it was exempted from the general obligation to provide the royal court, during its presence in...
LETTER-CARRIERS, JEWISH – Jews carried letters to their coreligionists, apart from the regular post. In those business centers where a large Jewish population existed, such as Hamburg, Prague, Gross Glogau, Polish Lissa, Breslau, and
LETTER-WRITING AND LETTER-WRITERS – The art of conveying information by letter ("miktab," "iggeret," "sefer") was unknown to the Hebrews in the first stages of their history. From the times of the Patriarchs to those of King Saul the Bible mentions only messengers...
LEVI, JUDAH – Influential Jew at Estella, Navarre, from 1380 to 1391. In 1380 and the following years he was commissioned, with Samuel Amarillo, to collect the tax of five per cent on all real estate in the district of Estella which within...
LEVI BEN SHEM-ṬOB – Portuguese convert; lived at the end of the fifteenth century; notorious for his hostility to his former coreligionists. According to Abraham b. Solomon of Torrutiel (Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 113-114), it was Levi b. ShemṬob...
LEVI, SOLOMON B. ISAAC – Rabbi and scholar of the sixteenth century. He was born in Smyrna, became director of the academy 'Eẓ Ḥayyim at Salonica, and went subsequently to Venice. He was versed in philosophy, natural sciences, and mathematics as well as...
LIBRARIES – Very little is known concerning the methods employed by Jews in the collection and preservation of books. The Biblical writings are silent on this point. That there were royal archives in Jerusalem may be surmised with some show...
LIBYA – District in the north of Africa. The name "Libya" was often used by the ancients, sometimes to designate the whole of northern Africa (with the exception of Egypt), sometimes to denote a single province west of Egypt. According...
PORTO – Italian family of which the following members are noteworthy:Abraham b. Jehiel ha-Kohen Porto: Italian scholar; flourished about 1600. After living in Cremona and Mantua, he resided in Verona, where in 1594 he edited and printed...
PORTO – Italian family of which the following members are noteworthy:Abraham b. Jehiel ha-Kohen Porto: Italian scholar; flourished about 1600. After living in Cremona and Mantua, he resided in Verona, where in 1594 he edited and printed...
LISBON – Capital of Portugal. It had the largest Jewish community in the country and was the residence of the chief rabbi ("arraby mor"). It had several "Judarias" or Jewish streets, one of them in the part of the city called "de...