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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
MANESSIER DE VESOUL – French communal leader; originally from Vesoul and probably of the family of Héliot of Vesoul, whose ledger has been published by Isidore Loeb (in "R. E. J." viii., ix.). He is chiefly known in connection with the Paris...
MANRESA – Town in Spain, in the province of Barcelona. In the twelfth century it is said to have contained 500 Jewish families, most of which lived in a narrow lane named "Grau dels Jueus," near the town hall; their cemetery, still called...
MANUSCRIPTS – Writing Material. The first materials used for writing were such substances as stone, wood, and metal, upon which the characters were engraved with a stylus. At a very early time, however, animal substances were employed, and...
MARIAMNE – 1. Wife of Herod the Great; the first of this name. She was the daughter of the Hasmonean Alexander, a son of Aristobulus II., who was conquered and put to flight by Herod's father, Antipater. Her mother was Alexandra, daughter...
MARIK, SOLOMON – Spanish surgeon, of whose life no details are known. He wrote in Spanish in Hebrew script a work entitled "Libro de la Cirogia," of which a fragment exists in a volume of miscellanea in the royal library at Munich.David Marich...
MARTINEZ, FERRAND – Archdeacon of Ecija in the fourteenth century, and one of the most inveterate enemies of the Jewish people; lived at Seville, where among Christians he was highly respected for his piety and philanthropy. In his sermons and...
MASADA – Strong mountain fortress in Palestine, not far west of the Dead Sea. The fortress was built by the high priest Jonathan (a statement which Schürer upon insufficient grounds holds to be false), who also gave it its name...
MASARJAWAIH – One of the oldest Arabic Jewish physicians, and the oldest translator from the Syriac; lived in Bassora about 883. His name, mutilated in every possible way, has been transmitted in European sources; nor has it yet been...
MASSARANI (MASSARAN) – Name of an Italian family which has been known since the latter part of the fifteenth century. Originally the name of the family was , from Massarano, a small town near Novara in Piedmont. Subsequently various members lived at...
MATTATHIAS MACCABEUS – The originator of the Maccabean rebellion. His genealogy is given as follows in the First Book of Maccabees, the most authentic source: "Mattathias, the son of John, the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joiarib, from...
MATTATHIAS B. SIMON – Son of the Hasmonean prince Simon, whom he accompanied on his last journey, together with his brother Judah and his mother. Simon, with his sons, was invited by his son-in-law Ptolemy to a banquet in the fortress of Docus, near...
MATTHÄI (SIMEON), ADAM RUDOLF GEORG – German convert to Christianity; born at Fürth 1715; died at Nuremberg 1779. After having studied Talmud at Prague under his father, Jaidel, who was lecturer on Talmud in the bet ha-midrash, Matthäi, whose name was then Simeon,...
MATTITHIAH BEN MOSES BEN MATTITHIAH – Spanish Talmudist; lived toward the end of the fourteenth century and at the beginning of the fifteenth. He was a member of the Yiẓhari family of Narbonne. As he himself relates, his ancestors on being banished from France...
ME'ASSEFIM – Name designating the group of Hebrew writers who between 1784 and 1811 published their works in the periodical "Ha-Me'assef," which they had founded. In 1782 Moses Mendelssohn's German translation of the Pentateuch had appeared....
MECIA (MATTHEW) DE VILADESTES – Jewish chartographer of Majorca at the beginning of the fifteenth century. He was the author of a map, dated 1413, formerly in the convent of Val de Cristo, near Segorbe, but now in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris. In it he...
MEDIA – In Bible. Ancient name of a country which is located south and west of the Caspian Sea, and is associated with events in Jewish history. The confines of Media anciently embraced territory corresponding roughly to the present...
MEÏR BEN BARUCH HA-LEVI – Rabbi at Vienna from 1360 to 1390; a native of Fulda (Isserlein, "Terumat ha-Deshen," No. 81). His authority was acknowledged not only throughout Germany, but even by the Spanish rabbis (Isaac b. Sheshet, Responsa, No. 278). He...
MEÏR BEN ELEAZAR – French liturgical poet of the first half of the thirteenth century. He wrote: (1) a series of poems to be recited on the seventh evening of Passover, some of which are arranged in alphabetical order; (2) a dirge beginning...
MEÏR IBN JAIR – Italian (?) Talmudist and grammarian of the sixteenth century. His family name seems to have been "Meïri"; for he is always mentioned under the name of "Meïr le-Bet Meïr" (= "Meïr of the house of Meïr"). He is called "Ibn Jair"...
MEÏR BEN JOSEPH BEN MERWAN HA-LEVI – French scholar; flourished at Narbonne in the twelfth century; brother of the nasi R. Moses ben Joseph ben Merwan, and pupil of Isaac ben Merwan, head of the Narbonne academy in the early part of the twelfth century. He was held...
MEÏR HA-KOHEN – French scholar of the thirteenth century; born at Narbonne; died at Toledo, Spain, whither he had emigrated in 1263 (Israeli, "Yesod 'Olam," ii. 35, ed. Berlin, 1846). Meïr occupied himself particularly with the study of the...
MEÏR BEN LEVI – Austrian Talmudist and Biblical commentator of the beginning of the eighteenth century; a native of Zolkiev. Under the title "Liḳḳuṭe Shoshannim" (Jessnitz, 1722), he compiled the comments and novellæ of the Geonim on the...
MEÏR BEN SAMUEL (RaM) – French tosafist; born about 1060 in Ramerupt; died after 1135. His father was an eminent scholar. Meïr received his education in the Talmudical schools of Lorraine, his principal teachers being Isaac ben Asher ha-Levi and...
MELDOLA – Genealogical Tree of the Meldola Family. Ancient Sephardic family whose genealogy can be traced through sixteen generations without a break to Isaiah Meldola of Toledo (born in 1282). Under Spanish names it long flourished in...
MELO, DAVID ABENATAR – Rabbi and poet; born in Spain about 1550. His translation of some of the Psalms into Spanish verse brought him under the suspicion of the Inquisition, and he was imprisoned. When, after several years of torture, he was acquitted...