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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
MESHULLAM BEN SOLOMON – Poet; lived at the beginning of the thirteenth century. Although Jedaiah Bedersi, in his "Iggeret Hitnaẓẓelut," classes Meshullam among the Provençal poets, Meshullam's native country seems to have been Spain. According to Gross...
MESSINA – Italian city, "at the point of Sicily, on the strait called Lunir, which divides Calabria from Sicily." ("Itinerary" of Benjamin of Tudela). Its Jewish community may have been founded even before the destruction of the Second...
MEZA (MESA) – A family of Amsterdam distinguished for the number of its members that filled rabbinic offices.Abraham Ḥayyim de Jacob de Solomon de Meza: Member of the Talmud Torah 'Eẓ Ḥayyim in Amsterdam, and author of a sermon, delivered in...
MEZA, CHRISTIAN JACOB THEOPHILUS DE – Danish physician and author; born in Copenhagen Nov. 26, 1756; died there April 6, 1844. He was a son of the physician Christian de Meza, together with whom he embraced Christianity in 1783. In the same year he graduated as M.D....
MIHAILENI – Small town in the district of Dorogoi, Rumania. It was formerly called Vladeni and Tirgu-Nou, and was founded in 1792 by a number of Jews under an agreement with the proprietor of the domain. This agreement was confirmed by a...
MILAN – Expelled in 1320. Capital of Lombardy, and the largest commercial city of Italy. Jews settled there under Roman rule and were persecuted even in the early Christian period. Ambrose,the patron saint of the city, was their...
MILES OF MARSEILLES – Provençal physician and philosopher; born at Marseilles 1294. In some manuscripts he is designated by the name "Bongodos," the Provençal equivalent of "Ben Judah." From early youth he devoted himself to the study of science and...
MILHAUD – Village in the department of Gard, France. In Renan-Neubauer, "Les Rabbins Français," p. 665, its name is given as . It has been erroneously confounded with Millau (the ancient Æmilianum or Amilbanum) in the department of...
MINIR – Family of scholars of Tudela, members of which are met with in the East and in Italy.Abraham ben Joseph Minir (probably a brother of Isaac ben Joseph Minir); Acah (Isaac) ben Ḥayyim and his son Abraham Minir; and Shem-Ṭob ben...
MODENA – City in central Italy; formerly the capital of the duchy of Modena. Of its Jewish community, which has been, during the last few centuries, one of the most important in Italy, there is no record until a comparatively late date....
MODENA – An Italian family the most distinguished members of which are:Aaron Berechiah Modena. See Aaron Berechiah ben Moses ben Nehemiah of Modena.David ben Abraham Modena: Supposed author of the anonymous Hebrew-Italian school...
MOHAMMED – Early Years. Founder of Islam and of the Mohammedan empire; born at Mecca between 569 and 571 of the common era; died June, 632, at Medina. Mohammed was a posthumous child and lost his mother when he was six years old. He then...
MOHAMMED – Early Years. Founder of Islam and of the Mohammedan empire; born at Mecca between 569 and 571 of the common era; died June, 632, at Medina. Mohammed was a posthumous child and lost his mother when he was six years old. He then...
MOHAMMED – Early Years. Founder of Islam and of the Mohammedan empire; born at Mecca between 569 and 571 of the common era; died June, 632, at Medina. Mohammed was a posthumous child and lost his mother when he was six years old. He then...
MOINESHTI – Small town in Moldavia, district of Bakau. The census of 1820 reported forty-two Jewish taxpayers in the town, who constituted the larger part of the population; they were engaged in the exploitation of petroleum-wells, which...
MONCALVO – Small town in the province of Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy. Jews settled there after their expulsion from France. The community, like those of Asti and Fossano, long retained the old French ritual, and still uses the German...
MONTÉLIMAR – Capital of the department of the Drome, France. A large number of Jews lived here from the beginning of the fourteenth century. They possessed a synagogue in the Rue du Puits-Neuf, formerly the Rue de la Juiverie, as well as a...
MONTICELLI – Small town in the province of Piacenza, northern Italy, with a Jewish community dating from the expulsion of the Jews from the duchy of Milan in 1597. The first settlers were the Soavi and Sforni families of Cremona. The...
MORDECAI NATHAN, MAESTRO – French physician; lived at Avignon in the middle of the fifteenth century. He corresponded with Joseph Colon, who highly praises his medical skill and addresses him by the title , a term which, according to some authorities...
MORGENLAND, ALTES UND NEUES – Monthly magazine published in Basel, Switzerland. It was edited by Samuel Preiswerk and appeared for six years (1838-44). Its contents were exclusively exegetical in character; indeed, the periodical was designed "for the...
MOSCATO, JUDAH ARYEH (LEONE) – Italian rabbi, poet, and philosopher of the sixteenth century; born at Osimo, near Ancona; died at Mantua before 1594. After the expulsion of the Jews from the Pontifical States by Paul IV. in 1554, Judah went to the home of his...
MOSES BEN ABRAHAM OF NÎMES – Liturgical poet and astronomer; lived at Avignon in the second half of the fifteenth century. He was the author of a liturgical poem composed at Avignon in 1462 (published, with the religious controversy of Jehiel of Paris, at...
MOSES B. MEÏR OF FERRARA – Italian tosafist of the thirteenth century, whose tosafot were used by the compiler of the "Haggahot Maimuniyyot." Moses himself used the tosafot of Judah Sir Leon of Paris, although it is doubtful whether he was Judah's...
MOSES OF PAVIA – Italian scholar of the eleventh century. According to Kaufmann, he is identical with the teacher Moses of Pavia, who, about 900 C.E., left that city for the north of Italy on account of a quarrel with Amittai b. Shephatiah. He...
MOSES BEN SAMUEL BEN ASHER – French Talmudist; flourished at Perpignan in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Both Moses and his father possessed great influence in Perpignan, and obtained from James I., King of Majorca, permission for the Jews who had...