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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
MOSES B. SAMUEL OF ROQUEMAURE – Physician and translator of the fourteenth century; lived at Avignon, Toledo, and Seville. At Toledo he wrote a poem, before 1358, satirizing the eccentric philosophical writer Shemariah of Negropont, who posed as Messiah and...
NAGDELA (NAGRELA), ABU ḤUSAIN JOSEPH IBN – Spanish statesman; born about 1031; died Dec. 30, 1066; son of Samuel ibn Nagdela. A highly educated and clever man, he succeeded his father as vizier and as rabbi of the community of Granada, directing at the same time an...
NANCY – Chief town of the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, France, and the ancient capital of Lorraine; seat of a consistory whose district comprises 4,500 souls. When Jews first settled there is unknown; but they were expelled toward...
NAVARRA, ABRAM – Rabbi at Casale (Casale-Monferrato) in 1650. Responsa by him are found, in manuscript, in the collections of David Kaufmann of Budapest and of the Jews' College at London (Mortara, "Indice," p. 43).G. I. E.
NEHARDEA (NEARDA) – City of Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka; one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism. As the seat of the exilarch it traced its origin back to King Jehoiachin. According to...
NETTER, EUGENE – Roman Catholic archbishop at Manila; born 1840 at Bergheim, near Colmar, in Alsace. At the age of fourteen he and his brother Gabriel emigrated to New York. Upon the outbreak of the Civil war Gabriel joined the Union army; he...
NICANOR – Son of Patroclus, and general and friend of Antiochus Epiphanes, who in 165 B.C. sent him and Gorgias with an army against the Jews (I Macc. iii. 38; II Macc. viii. 9). In anticipation of an easy victory, he had brought 1,000...
NICHOLAS OF DAMASCUS (NICOLAUS DAMASCENUS) – Greek historian and philosopher; friend of King Herod the Great; born at Damascus, where his father, Antipater, filled high offices and was greatly respected (Suidas, s.v. Ἄντίπατρος); died at Rome. Being the heir to his...
NUMENIUS – Son of Antiochus. Together with Antipater, son of Jason, he was sent to Sparta and Rome, first by Jonathan Maccabeus (I Macc. xii. 16; Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 5, § 8), and then by Simon (I Macc. xv. 15-24), returning with decrees...
NYONS – Town in the ancient province of Dauphiné, France. A Jewish community must have existed there before the fourteenth century; for a document in Latin of the year 1322 speaks of the "old Jews" and of "the newly arrived Hebrews."...
ONIAS – Name of several high priests at the time of the Second Temple. The sequence given them below is based on the statements of Josephus, which are unreliable, since Josephus did not have access to trustworthy sources.Onias I.: Son...
ORIA – City of southern Italy, possessing one of the oldest Jewish communities in Europe. Ahimaaz ben Paltiel in his Chronicle represents his ancestor Amittai I. as living in Oria as early as 850; Hananeel, Amittai's son, held a...
ORLEANS – Chief city of the department of Loiret, France. Its Jewish community dates from the sixth century. The various councils which met at that time in the city enacted special laws against the Jews. In 533 the second Council of...
OTRANTO – City of southern Italy. It was one of the oldest seats of Jewish learning in Europe, so that at an early date the proverb "From Bari shall the Law go forth, and the word of the Lord from Otranto" came into circulation. In the...
PADUA – Prosperity in the Fourteenth Century. City of upper Italy, 22 miles west of Venice, on the Bacchiglione; capital of the province of the same name. Its Jewish congregation, for centuries one of the most important of Italy, with...
PALERMO – Capital of the island of Sicily; situated on the northern coast. Its Jewish community dates from the Roman period. Under Gregory the Great (d. 604), when it is first mentioned, it is already in possession of a synagogue and a...
PALMA – Capital of the Spanish island of Majorca. As early as the Moorish period Jews were living in Almudayna, the most populous part of the city, which was surrounded by walls and contained the "Castell dels Jueus," the Jews' castle....
PANZIERI – Portuguese family members of which are met with in Constantinople and Rome from the sixteenth century. The family is still (1904) represented in Italy. The most important member of the Constantinople branch is:Ephraim Panzieri:...
PAPPUS – Leader of a rebellion under Emperor Hadrian (117-138). He is always mentioned together with Luliani, who was probably his brother ("'Aruk," s.v. ). They came originally from Alexandria (hence their Greek names); but they lived...
PATRICIUS – 1. Leader of the Jews against the Romans in the fourth century. When the Jews in Palestine were severely oppressed by the Roman general Ursicinus (351) they made a desperate attempt at revolt, which soon ended in their...
PENTAPOLIS – 1. The five Sodomite cities Adamah, Gomorrah, Sodom, Zeboim, and Zoar, expressly called "Pentapolis" in Wisdom x. 6.2. The five Philistine cities Askelon, Azotus, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza (comp. I Sam. vi. 17, 18) in connection...
PERIODICALS – Classification. In the broadest meaning of the term Jewish periodicals include all magazines as well as all newspapers which, either because of the language in which they are published or because of the special nature of their...
PERTUIS – Cantonal chief town of the department of Vaucluse, France. Jews were settled there as early as the thirteenth century. According to a document dated 1283, they, like theircoreligionists of the towns of Aix, Saint-Maximin,...
PERUGIA – Town in Umbria, Italy. It had a Jewish congregation as early as the fourteenth century. Several Jewish scholars lived there; e.g., Daniel b. Samuel Rofe b. Daniel (dayyan about 1400); the poet and physician Moses b. Isaac Rieti...
PESARO – Rivalry with Ancona. Town in the Marches, Italy, formerly belonging to the duchy of Urbino. It has numbered some Jews among its inhabitants since the fifteenth century. One of the first Hebrew printers, Abraham b. Ḥayyim dei...