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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
PESARO, AARON – Author of the work "Toledot Aharon," in which beside every Biblical verse is noted the place where the verse is explained in the Talmud and Midrash. It is not known where or when the author lived; but it is probable that he...
PETRONIUS, ARBITER – Latin satirist; generally assumed to be a contemporary of Nero. In a fragment he ridicules the Jews, declaring that, even though they worship the pig and revere heaven, this is of no significance unless they are circumcised, for...
PETRONIUS, PUBLIUS – Governor of Syria (39-42); died probably in the reign of Claudius. During his term of office Petronius had frequent opportunities to come in contact with the Jews of Judea and to confer benefits upon them. This was especially...
PEYREHORADE – Cantonal chief town of the department of Landes, France. A number of Jews who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal settled in this vicinity toward the close of the fifteenth century, and founded a small community which they...
PHABI – High-priestly family which flourished about the period of the fall of the Second Temple.The name, with which may be compared Φαβέας (variant, Φαμέας), that of a Carthaginian general (Suidas, s.v. 'Αμίλκας), was borne by the high...
PHASAEL – Elder brother of Herod the Great. Both Phasael and Herod began their careers under their father, Antipater, who appointed the former to be governor of Jerusalem, and Herod governor of Galilee (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 9, § 2; "B....
PHASAELIS, PHASAELUS – City in Palestine founded by Herod the Great in honor of his brother Phasael (Phasaelus). It was situated in the Jordan valley north of Jericho, in a barren region, which was, however, made fit for cultivation (Josephus, "Ant."...
PHERORAS – Son of Antipater and his wife Cypros; died in 5 B.C. (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 3, § 3; "B. J." i. 29, § 4). He was the youngest brother of Herod, who entrusted to him the petty warfare with the partizans of Antigonus, and at whose...
PHILIP OF BATHYRA – Son of Jacimus and grandson of Zamaris, both of whom governed the city of Bathyra in Trachonitis. Agrippa II. honored Philip with his friendship and made him leader of his troops (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 2, § 3), so that when...
PHINEHAS – Guardian of the treasury at Jerusalem. In the last days of Jerusalem, in the year 70 C.E., he followed the example of his priestly colleague Jesus b. Thebouthi, and betrayed his trust; collecting many of the linen coats of the...
PHINEHAS BEN CLUSOTH – Leader of the Idumcans. Simon b. Giora undertook several expeditions into the territory of the Idumeans to requisition provisions for his people. The ldumeans, after their complaints in Jerusalem had not brought assistance,...
PHINEHAS B. SAMUEL – The last high priest; according to the reckoning of Josephus, the eighty-third since Aaron. He was a wholly unworthy person who was not of high-priestly lineage and who did not even know what the high priest's office was, but...
PHRYGIA – Province in Asia Minor. Antiochus the Great transferred 2,000 Jewish families from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and Lydia (Josephus, "Ant." xii. 3, § 4). They settled principally in Laodicea and Apamea. The Christian...
PIGO – Italian family of rabbis. Formerly the name was as a rule transcribed Figo; in an Italian document of 1643 it appears in the form "Pichio"; and in Hebrew it is sometimes written . To this family belong Ephraim Pigo, a learned...
PINA, DE – Portuguese Marano family some members of which were able to escape the Inquisition and to confess Judaism openly in Amsterdam.Jacob (Manuel) de Pina: Spanish and Portuguese poet; born of Marano parents in Lisbon in 1616; went to...
PIOVE DI SACCO – Small Italian city in the district of Padua; the first in that territory to admit Jews. A loan-bank was opened there by an association ("consortium") before 1373, and was probably an unimportant institution, as it paid a yearly...
PISA – Town in Tuscany, Italy, at the mouth of the River Arno; formerly a port of the TyrrhenianSea. The settlement of Jews in Pisa dates back to very early times; the first mention of a congregation is met with in the "Itinerary" of...
POITIERS – French city; capital of the department of Vienne. In 1236 the Jews of Poitiers and the adjacent country were harried by the Crusaders, although Pope Gregory IX., in a letter to the bishop, strongly condemned their excesses. Four...
POITOU – Ancient province of France. Several Jewish communities were founded there in the twelfth century, notably those of Niort, Bressuire, and Thouars (department of Deux-Sèvres), Chatellerault (Vienne), and Mortagne and Tyfauges (La...
POLEMON II. – King, first of the Pontus and the Bosporus, then of the Pontus and Cilicia, and lastly of Cilicia alone; died in 74 C.E. Together with other neighboring kings and princes, Polemon once visited King Agrippa I. in Tiberias...
POMIS, DE – An old Italian Jewish family which claimed descent from King David. According to a legend, reproduced by De Pomis in the introduction to his lexicon "Ẓemaḥ Dawid," the Pomeria family was one of the four families brought from...
POMIS, DE – An old Italian Jewish family which claimed descent from King David. According to a legend, reproduced by De Pomis in the introduction to his lexicon "Ẓemaḥ Dawid," the Pomeria family was one of the four families brought from...
POMIS, DE – An old Italian Jewish family which claimed descent from King David. According to a legend, reproduced by De Pomis in the introduction to his lexicon "Ẓemaḥ Dawid," the Pomeria family was one of the four families brought from...
POMPEY THE GREAT – Roman general who subjected Judea to Rome. In the year 65 B.C., during his victorious campaign through Asia Minor, he sent to Syria his legate Scaurus, who was soon obliged to interfere in the quarrels of the two brothers...
PONTOISE – French town; capital of an arrondissement in the department of Seine-et-Oise. It contained a Jewish community as early as the eleventh century. In 1179 (according to some authorities, in 1166 or 1171) the Jews of Pontoise were...