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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
PORTO – Italian family of which the following members are noteworthy:Abraham b. Jehiel ha-Kohen Porto: Italian scholar; flourished about 1600. After living in Cremona and Mantua, he resided in Verona, where in 1594 he edited and printed...
PORTO – Italian family of which the following members are noteworthy:Abraham b. Jehiel ha-Kohen Porto: Italian scholar; flourished about 1600. After living in Cremona and Mantua, he resided in Verona, where in 1594 he edited and printed...
POSQUIÈRES – Town in the department of the Gard, France, where Jews are known to have lived since the twelfth century. When Benjamin of Tudela visited the city, about 1165, the community was composed of forty members, among whom he mentions...
PRESBYTER – From the time of Moses down to the Talmudic period the "zeḳenim" (elders) are mentioned as constituting a regular communal organization, occasionally under the Greek name Gerusia. But the term "presbyter" (πρεσβύτερος) is found...
PROFIAT – Name used by Jews in Provence and northern Spain. In Hebrew it is written in various forms: , ; or , with the substitution of g for t, not uncommon in Romance languages ("Shebeṭ Yehudah," ed. Wiener, p. 112); in Provençal,...
PROVENCE – Province of ancient France lying between the Rhone, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Maritime Alps, although medieval Jewish scholars frequently applied the name to a portion of Bas-Languedoc (Menahem Me'iri, introductionto "Bet...
PROVINS – French town, in the department of Seine-et-Marne. Jews were settled there as early as the twelfth century. Thibaut, Count of Champagne, made an agreement with Provins in 1230 in which he reserved to himself all rights over the...
PTOLEMY – 1. Prince (tetrarch) of Iturea and Chalcis from about 85 to 40 B.C., in which year he died; son of Mennæus. He tried to extend his kingdom by warlike expeditions (Strabo, xvi. 2, § 10); and ruled the Lebanon, threatened...
PTOLEMY I – At first satrap (322-307 B.C.), then king (305-285), of Egypt. He founded the dynasty of the Ptolemies, which, from his father's name, is also called that of the Lagi. Λαγώς means "hare"; and a rabbinical tradition relates that...
PTOLEMY II – King of Egypt from 285 to 247 B.C. He continued the struggle for Cœle-Syria and Palestine and established himself permanently in possession of those countries about 274. Like all Diadochi, he took, pleasure in building cities;...
PTOLEMY III – King of Egypt from 247 to 222 B.C.; referred to in Dan. xi. 7-9. According to that passage, the Egyptian king made great conquests in Syria, which statement is confirmed by external authorities. The idols of the conquered,...
PTOLEMY IV – King of Egypt from 222 to 205 B.C.; hero of the events described in Dan. xi. 11-12. The passage in question refers to battles between him and Antiochus the Great, more especially the decisive battle at Raphia (217 B.C.), in...
PTOLEMY V – King of Egypt from 205 to 182 B.C. He was a child of five when he came to the throne. The protracted struggle for the possession of Cœle-Syria and Palestine was now finally decided in favor of the Syrians. Antiochus the Great...
PTOLEMY VII – Is Dethroned. King of Egypt from 182 to 146 B.C.; eldest son of Ptolemy V. With him the power over Egypt passes into unworthy hands. Philometor was still a child when he came to the throne, the Jewish philosopher Aristobulus of...
PTOLEMY IX – King of Egypt from 146 to 117 B.C. After the death of Ptolemy Philometor, his brother, Euergetes II., tried to overthrow his widow and successor, Cleopatra, whose army was commanded by the Jewish general Onias (Josephus, "Contra...
PTOLEMY MACRON – General of King Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria; sent by the prefect Lysins with two other generals, Nicanor and Gorgias, to fight against the Jews under the Maccabees. In I Macc. iii. 38, II Macc. iv. 45, and in Josephus, "Ant."...
ROMANO, LEONE – Italian scholar; born at Rome 1292; died there after 1350. Romano was a friend of the naturalist Benjamin b. Judah, together with whom he was the center of learning of the Roman community. He was a gifted thinker, a fine...
ROUSSILLON – Province of ancient France, now forming the department of Pyrénées-Orientales. Jews settled there in the early part of the thirteenth century, and formed congregations at Perpignam, Collioure, Céret, Millas, Ille, Puigcerda,...
SAINT-SYMPHORIEN D'OZON – Town in the ancient province of Dauphiné, France. In the fourteenth century it had a large and wealthy Jewish community, to which the dauphin Charles granted (1355) important privileges; for this a special impost was paid...
SAMUEL BEN JACOB OF CAPUA – Italian translator; lived, probably at Capua, at the end of the thirteenth century, if Steinschneider's supposition that Samuel was the father of the physician Solomon of Capua (MS. Turin No. 42) be correct. Samuel translated,...
SANUA, JAMES – Egyptian publicist; born at Cairo April, 1839. He studied in Egypt and in Italy, and at the age of sixteen commenced to contribute articles to Arabic, French, Italian, and English newspapers. In 1863 he became professor at the...
SARAGOSSA – Under the Spaniards. Capital of the former kingdom of Aragon. The city is situated on the Ebro, which is crossed by a long stone bridge constructed with the municipal fees received from the miḳweh during the two years beginning...
SCOPUS – An elevation seven stadia north of Jerusalem, where, according to tradition, the high priest and the inhabitants of the city welcomed Alexander the Great (Josephus, "Ant." xi. 8, § 5). Josephus states that the place was called...
SEBASTUS – The port of Cæsarea on the Mediterranean Sea. Cæsarea itself, which Herod hadmade an important seaport, received its name in honor of Julius Cæsar, while the harbor proper was called "Sebastus" as a tribute to the Emperor...
SENECA, LUCIUS ANNÆUS – Stoic philosopher; born about 6 B.C.; died 65 C.E.; teacher of Nero. Like other Latin authors of the period, Seneca mentions the Jews, although his opinions are known only from fragments. He devotes a long passage to an...