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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
BYKHOV – District town in the government of Mohilev, Russia. At the census of 1898 the total population was 6,536, including 3,172 Jews, of whom 587 were artisans. Most of the Jews are extremely poor, and at times they lack the simple...
CÆSAR, CAIUS JULIUS – Roman dictator, consul, and conqueror; born July 12, 100 B.C. (according to Mommsen, 102 B.C.); assassinated March 15, 44 B.C. Cæsar's attitude toward the Jews is manifest from the many enactments issued in their favor by him...
CANDIA, ISAAC B. SAUL CHMELNIKER – Hebrew poet; lived at Warsaw, Poland, in the first half of the nineteenth century. He is the author of an elegy on the death of Alexander I., emperor of Russia (Warsaw, 1826), the poem being accompanied by a German version of...
CANTONISTS – Sons of Russian private soldiers who from 1805 to 1827 were educated in special "canton schools" for future military service; after 1827 the term was applied also to Jewish boys, who, according to a statute issued Sept. 7, 1827,...
CAPISTRANO, JOHN OF – Franciscan monk; born at Capistrano, Italy, 1386; died 1456. Owing to his remarkable power as a popular preacher, he was sent by Pope Nicholas V. (1447-55) as a legate to Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, with the special...
CASIMIR II., THE JUST – King of Poland; born 1138; ascended the throne on the deposition of his brother Mieczyslaw III., 1177; died 1194. He was one of the most amiable monarchs that ever ruled in Poland, a lover of peace, and a friend of the people....
CASIMIR III., THE GREAT – King of Poland; born 1309; succeeded 1333; died in Cracow Nov. 5, 1370. He was a peaceful ruler, and, by his salutary reforms, strengthened his reign and developed trade and industry. On Oct. 9, 1334, he confirmed the privileges...
CASIMIR IV., JAGELLON – Grand duke of Lithuania and king of Poland; born 1427; died at Grodno 1492. He succeeded to the grand duchy in 1440, and followed his brother Ladislaus III. on the throne of Poland in 1447. For the greater part of his reign,...
CATHERINE II – Empress of Russia; born in Stettin May 2, 1729; died in St. Petersburg Nov. 17, 1796. She was the wife and successor of Peter III., and usurped the throne July 9, 1762.Edict Excluding Jews. Within a week of her accession,...
CAUCASUS – A division of Russia, bounded on the north by European Russia; on the east by the Caspian sea; on the south by Persia and Asiatic Turkey; and on the west by the Black sea. It consists of six governments, four provinces, and two...
CENSORSHIP OF HEBREW BOOKS – Censorship is the regulation, first decreed by the Church and then carried out either by that institution or by the state, whereby books (both manuscript and printed) were examined for the purpose of ascertaining whether they...
CHALYZIANS – A people who, according to the Byzantine historian, John Cinnamus (twelfth century), accepted the Mosaic law. They fought, together with the Dalmatians, against the Greeks in the reign of Manuel Comnenus in 1154. "Chalyzians,"...
CHASHKES, MOSES (LÖB) B. JACOB – Neo-Hebrew poet and Russian translator; born in Wilna Sept. 27, 1848; removed later to Odessa. His first collection of Hebrew songs, entitled "Nite'e Na'amanim," appeared in Warsaw in 1869. In the same year appeared "Ha-Peraḥim"...
CHASHNIKI – Town in the government of Vitebsk, Russia, having (in 1897) a population of 4,590, of whom about 4,000 are Jews. Besides those engaged in dairying, which is entirely in the hands of the Jewish population, there are 310 Jewish...
CHATZKIN, ISAAC ANDREYEVICH – Russian physician; born 1832; died at Odessa June, 1902. He settled in that city in 1869, and practised there for more than thirty years. In 1870 he became a member of the Medical Society of Odessa and a corresponding member of...
CHAUSSY – District town in the government of Mohilev, Russia. The Jewish community of Chaussy dates from the seventeenth century, as appears from a charter granted to the Jews Jan. 11, 1667, by Michael Casimir Pacz, castellan of Wilna,...
CHAZANOWICZ, JOSEPH – Russian physician, and founder of the Jewish National Library at Jerusalem; born at Goniondz, government of Grodno, Russia, Oct. 22, 1844; son of Aaron Chazanowicz. After finishing his studies at the Jewish school and at the...
CHAZARS – A people of Turkish origin whose life and history are interwoven with the very beginnings of the history of the Jews of Russia. The kingdom of the Chazars was firmly established in most of South Russia long before the foundation...
CHECHELNIK – Town in the government of Podolia, Russia, having (1898) a population of about 7,000, including 1,967 Jews. Their principal occupation is commerce; but 352 are engaged in various handicrafts, and 96 are journeymen. About 200...
CHECHERSK – Town in the government of Mohilev, Russia, with a population (in 1898) of 2,819, including 1,692 Jews. The latter are principally engaged in commerce, but 323 follow various handicrafts. Of these 158 own shops, 60 are...
CHELM – Town in the government of Kovno, Russia. It has a population of about 4,200, all of whom, with the exception of about 300, are Jews. Most of them are engaged in mercantile pursuits, only 549 being artisans. The town has a...
CHEMEROVTZY – Small town in the government of Podolia, Russia, with (in 1898) an almost exclusively Jewish population of 1,282. About 160 Jews follow various trades, but the bulk of the population is engaged in mercantile pursuits. Hair sacks...
CHENSTOCHOV – City in the government of Petrokow, Russian Poland, the Jewish inhabitants of which in 1897 numbered 12,500 in a total population of 45,130. Most of the Jews are merchants, only 2,155 being artisans. Of the latter, 801 are...
CHEREI – A small town in the government of Mohilev, Russia, with (1898) about 3,000 inhabitants, of whom 1,300 are Jews. The principal occupations of the latter are commerce and handicrafts. The total number of artisans is 298, 189 being...
CHERIKOV – Town in the government of Mohilev, Russia. According to the last census (1897) it has 5,250 inhabitants, including 2,700 Jews. Most of the latter are small tradesmen; 12 are engaged in horticulture, and 10 in gardening. In the...