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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
ATEL – The capital of the Chazars in the tenth century; situated about eight English miles from Astrakhan. Together with the city of Balanjara, which was equally renowned in ancient times, it is now buried under the highest of the...
AUER, LEOPOLD – Hungarian violinist; son of a poor house-painter; born in Veszprim, Hungary, June 7, 1845. His musical talent manifested itself early. When only four years old he marched in front of the revolutionary troops, beating the drum,...
AUERBACH, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN MESHULLAM SOLOMON – Austrian rabbi, banker, and commentator; born in Vienna at the beginning of the seventeenth century; died at Krotoschin, Posen, July 8, 1689. He was descended from the well-known Auerbach-Fischhof family, both his father,...
AUGUSTOW – District town in the government of Suvalk, Russian Poland, on the River Netta and the Lake Biale. In 1887 the Jewish population was nearly 5,500—about half the total population.Bibliography: Entziklopedicheski Slovar, i., St....
AUGUSTUS II., THE STRONG – Assisted in Election by Jews. Elector of Saxony 1694-1733, and from 1697 king of Poland with the title Frederick Augustus I.; born at Dresden May 12, 1670; died at Warsaw Feb. 1, 1733. He confirmed the privileges of the Jews,...
AUGUSTUS III. – Elector of Saxony, and as such Frederick Augustus II., king of Poland; son of Augustus II., "the Strong"; born at Dresden Oct. 17, 1696; died there Oct. 5, 1763. Like his father, he was brought up in the Protestant religion, but...
AVITUS OF AUVERGNE – Bishop of Clermont-Ferrand, France, in the sixth century. While the Roman bishops at that time generally treated the Jews with great liberality, while Pope Gregory I. exhorted the clergy and the princes against the use of force...
AXENFELD, AUGUSTE – French physician; born at Odessa Oct. 25, 1825; died at Paris Aug. 25, 1876. He was a son of Israel Aksenfeld. After completing his school education at his native town, he went to Paris to study medicine, and in due course...
AZOV – A town in the government of Ekaterinoslav, Russia, on the left bank of the Don, about twenty-four miles from Rostov and five miles from the sea. In ancient times it was an important business center, belonging to Greece and known...
BABINOVICHI – Town in the district of Orsha, government of Mohilev, Russia. In 1900, in a total population of 1,143 the Jews numbered about 800.G. H. R.
BABSKI REFUES – The name applied in Yiddish to domestic and superstitious medicine. Common folk among the Jews in Russia and Poland believe in peculiar remedies for diseases and maladies, some of the remedies consisting of drugs or physics and...
BAER, ASHER – Russian mathematician and engraver; born at Seiny, government of Suwalk, in the first quarter of the nineteenth century; died at Jerusalem in 1897. He made many important discoveries in mathematics and especially in mechanics,...
BAER (DOB) BEN NATHAN NATA OF PINSK – Russian rabbi of the first half of the eighteenth century. He was a descendant of Rabbi Nathan Nata Shapira of Cracow (who was the author of "Megalleh 'Amukim"). Baer is the author of "Neṭa' Sha'ashuim," a commentary on some...
BAGRATUNI – The ancestors of the Armenian-Georgian family of Bagration, the first family entered in the list of the Russian nobility (published by Count Aleksandr Bobrinsky, under the title "Dvoryanskie Rody," St. Petersburg, 1890). The...
BAKHCHI-SARAI – Former residence of the Tatar khans (fifteenth century to 1783); now a town in the government of Taurida (Crimea), Russia, situated on the rivulet Churuksu, nearly midway between Simferopol and Sebastopol. In a total population...
BAKHMUT – City in the government of Yekaterinoslav, Russia. It has 4,000 Jews in a population of 19,000. The district of Bakhmut, including the city, has a Jewish population of 9,469 in a total of 332,171. Until 1882, the Jews of the...
BAKST, ISAAC MOSES – Lecturer at the Jewish Rabbinical College of Jitomir; died there June 18, 1882; the father of Nicolai Bakst. He wrote "Sefer ha-Ḥinnuḥ," Jitomir, 1868—a Hebrew method for beginners, adapted for Jewish Russian schools. For many...
BAKST, NICOLAI IGNATYEVICH – Russian physiologist; born in 1843. He studied at St. Petersburg University, from which he graduated Bachelor of Natural Science in 1862. He was then sent abroad by the Ministry of Public Instruction for a period of three years...
BAKST, OSSIP ISAAKOVICH – Son of Isaac and brother of Nicolai Bakst; died Oct. 8, 1895; was employed as interpreter (dragoman) in the Asiatic Department of the Russian Foreign Ministry, and is known also as a publisher of Russian translations of...
BAKU – Seaport, in the government of the same name, Transcaucasia, Russia, situated on the peninsula of Apsheron, on the west coast of the Caspian sea. The naphtha-wells of Baku have long been known to fire-worshipers. It is supposed...
BALTA – A town in Russia, situated near the Rumanian and Turkish frontiers. Its Jewish community dates from about the middle of the eighteenth century. When Balta was founded, it was divided into a Polish part, called "Josephgrod,"...
BALTIC PROVINCES – The three Russian governments bordering the Baltic sea—Courland, Livonia, and Esthonia; belonging formerly to Sweden, with the exception of Courland, which was a dependency of Poland and came into possession of Russia, in part...
BANK, EMANUEL – Russian lawyer; born at Luknik, government of Kovno, 1840; died at St. Maurice. Switzerland, July 29, 1891. He was the son of Baruch (Boris) Bank; but, his parents being in poor circumstances, he was brought up by his aunt,...
BANK, JOSHUA BEN ISAAC – Rabbi at Tulchin, Russia; born at Satanov in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the author of the following works: (1) "Sippurim Nifla'im" (Wonderful Tales), translated from other languages into Hebrew verses...
BAR – Town in the district of Mohilev, province of Podolia, Russia, on the River Rov, affluent of the Bug; with a Jewish population of 8,000, of a total population of 10,614 (1897). The Jewish community of Bar is one of the oldest of...