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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
BARATZ, HERMAN (HIRSCH) – Russian lawyer and censor of Hebrew books; born at Dubno 1835; graduated from the Rabbinical School of Jitomir in 1859, and from the University of Kiev in 1869. In 1871 he was appointed by the governor-general of Kiev censor of...
BARDA – Formerly an important city (often mentioned by the Arabic geographers of the ninth and tenth centuries in connection with the invasions of the Russians in 880, 910, 914, and 943), now a Tatar village on the Terter river, in the...
BARDACH, JULIUS – Russian writer and teacher; born at Turijsk, province of Volhynia, 1828; died in Odessa in 1897 (?). He is said to have descended from Samuel b. David, author of the "ṬaZ" (commentary on the Shulḥan 'Aruk; the initials of Ṭure...
BARIT, JACOB – Russian Talmudist and communal worker; born at Simno, government of Suwalki, Sept. 12, 1797; died at Wilna March 6, 1883. He lost his parents early in life, and at the age of fourteen came to the city of Kovno, where he studied...
BARUCH – Polish mechanic of the beginning of the eighteenth century; lived in Pogrebishche. He produced two magnificent brass candelabra for the synagogue there, which are still extant. One of them was intended for the Ḥanukkah festival,...
BARUCH LEIBOV – A merchant who was burned at the stake in St. Petersburg July 15, 1738. He was one of the numerous Judæo-Polish merchants of those times who, through their ability and the protection of the nobles, managed to carry on a...
BARUCH OF TULCHIN – Russian rabbi and leader of the Ḥasidim of the Ukraine; born at Medzhibozh, government of Podolia, about 1750; died there in 1810. He was the son of Adele, who was the only daughter of Israel Ba'al Shem-Ṭob, founder of Ḥasidism,...
BARUCH YAVAN – Polish financier; agent of the Polish prime minister Count Brühl; born at Starokonstantinov, government of Volhynia, in the beginning of the eighteenth century; died probably between 1770 and 1780. His father's name was David...
BARZHANSKY, ADOLPH SOLOMONOWICH – Russian composer and pianist; born at Odessa 1851; died there 1900. His father, a member of a prosperous firm well known both in Russia and abroad, gave him a commercial training; but the young Adolph, who from childhood was...
BASKET-TAX – The most burdensome and annoying of the special taxes imposed upon the Jews of Russia by the government. The edict concerning this medieval tax—one of the legacies inherited by the Russian government from the Catholic...
BATHORI, STEPHEN – Prince of Transylvania 1571-76; king of Poland 1575-86, in succession to Henry of Anjou, who had left the kingdom in order to occupy the throne of France as Henry III. At this election Solomon Ashkenazi, the physician and...
BAUSK – District town, government of Courland, Russia. According to the census of 1897 the population was 6,543, including some three thousand Jews. The principal occupations of the latter are commerce and handicrafts, Jewish artisans...
BEHAK, JUDAH – Russo-Hebrew writer; born at Wilna Aug. 5, 1820; died at Kherson Nov. 14, 1900. He was the last of the champions of progress in Russo-Hebrew literature, known under the name of "Maskilim." Owing partly to the influence of Elijah...
BEHALAH – A name commonly bestowed on several periods of great excitement in Lithuania and Poland, when, for various reasons, Jewish parents thought it prudent to have their children married at the earliest possible age. Early marriages...
BEHR, ISSACHAR FALKENSOHN – Lithuanian poet; born in 1746 at Zamosc, government of Lublin, Russian Poland, or, according to Recke and Napiersky, at Salaty, a village in Lithuania, near the Courland frontier. Behr received in his native town no education...
BEHRMANN, LAZAR JAKOVLEVICH – Russian teacher and editor; born in Friedrichstadt, Courland, Sept. 26, 1830; died at St. Petersburg April 27, 1893. He received his early education in the ḥeder and in the district school of his native town, where he began his...
BEHRMANN, VASILI LAZAROVICH – Russian lawyer; son of Lazar Jakovlevich Behrmann; born in Mitau, Russia, Sept. 15, 1862; died at Cairo, Egypt, March 18, 1896. He received his early education at his father's school in St. Petersburg, passed through the...
BEILIN, ISAAC WULFOVICH – Russian teacher and physician; born in the first quarter of the nineteenth century; died at Wilna March 9, 1897. He was graduated from the Rabbinical School of Wilna, and subsequently held the position of senior teacher there...
BELINSON, MOSES ELIEZER – Russian publisher and scholar; born at Odessa about 1835. He devoted himself chiefly to the study of the genealogy of old Russian Jewish families, to one of which he belongs. He wrote on this subject two works, "Megillat...
BELKIND, ISRAEL – Russian Hebraist and teacher; born in 1861 at Logoisk, government of Minsk, Russia; educated at the high school of Mohilev on the Dnieper, and at the University of Kharkov. After the persecution of the Jews in Russia in 1881,...
BELKOVSKY, GRÉGOIRE – Russian political economist; born at Odessa 1865. While a student he joined the Jewish nationalists of Odessa, and lectured at the Sabbath free school of Löw and Sussman. For his treatise "Zalog po Rimskomu Pravu," he was...
BEN-AVIGDOR – Russian Hebrew novelist and publisher; born in Zheludok, government of Wilna, in 1867. He received the usual Biblical and Talmudical education, and was expected by his parents to become a rabbi; but he was attracted by modern...
BENDERY – District town in the government of Bessarabia. In 1898 it had a Jewish population of 12,000 out of a total of 33,000 inhabitants. Commerce is the main occupation of the Jews there, only 1,061 of them being engaged in handicrafts...
BENDETSOHN, MENAHEM MANUS – Russian pedagogue and Hebrew writer; born in Grodno 1817; died there March 20, 1888. After a careful Talmudic education in his native town he was sent, while still young, to Breslau, Germany, where his father-in-law, Reuben...
BENZION, BENEDIX – Russian physician and missionary to the Jews; born in a small town in the government of Kiev, Russia, in 1839. He spent several years in Rumania, and was baptized in Berlin in 1863. Benzion studied medicine and was graduated by...