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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
BERACHAH, "THE HERO" – A Polish Jewish soldier who was killed in the battle near Moscow, in the Polish war against Russia in 1610. He was the son of Aaron ha-Ḳadosh ("The Martyr") of Tishovitz (probably Tyshovtzy, government of Lublin), and served in...
BERCHIN, JONAH BORISOVICH – Writer on early Russian-Jewish history; born at Krichev, government of Mohilev, 1865; died at Moscow Aug., 1889. Up to the age of fourteen he received a strictly Orthodox education in the house of his uncle, where he became...
BERDYANSK – District town and seaport in the government of Taurida Crimea, Russia, on the northwestern coast of the Sea of Azof, at the Berdyansk estuary, near the mouth of the rivulet Berdyanka. It was built by the efforts of Prince M. S....
BERDYCHEV – A city in the government of Kiev, Russia; in historical and ethnographical relations part of Volhynia. It has one of the largest Jewish communities in Russia, and is often called the "Jerusalem of Volhynia." It is difficult to...
BERDYCZEWSKI, MICAH JOSEPH – Great Synagogue at Berdychev.(From a photograph.)Hebrew author; born in 1865. He represents, to some extent, the Nietzsche school of philosophy in the Hebrew literature of the present day. The son of the rabbi of Bershad,...
BEREK, JOSELOVICH – Polish colonel under Kosciusko and Napoleon I.; born at Kretingen, government of Kovno, Russia, in the second half of the eighteenth century; killed in the battle near Kotzk, government of Syedletz, Russian Poland, 1809. He was...
BEREZA – Town in the district of Pruszhany, government of Grodno, Russia; situated on the river Jazelda, on the road between Brest-Litovsk and Bobruisk. The Jewish population in 1890 was 850, out of a total of 2,625.Jews first settled in...
BEREZINO – Village of Russia, in the government of Minsk, having a population (1898) of 1,900, almost exclusively Jews (1,824). About 25 per cent of them are artisans and laborers, chiefly loaders. Twenty-four Jewish families are engaged...
BERKOWICZ, JOSEF – Officer in the Polish army; son of Colonel Berek (Berko). He took part in the battle of Kock, in 1809, in which his father was killed. When he quitted the military service in 1815, he was appointed forester of the government...
BERKOWITZ, BENZION JUDAH BEN ELIAHU – Russian Hebrew scholar; born July 23, 1803; died at Wilna May 11, 1879. He is the author of the following works devoted to the study of the Targum Onkelos: (1) '"Oteh Or," Wilna, 1843; (2) "Leḥem we-Simlah," 2 vols., ib....
BERLIN, LEO – Russian lawyer; son of Moses Berlin; born at Vitebsk Nov. 22, 1854; received his education (1862-72) at a private school in St. Petersburg. He studied law at the University of Bern, Switzerland, whence he was graduated in 1878....
BERLIN, MOSES (MOISEI JOSIFOVICH) – Scholar, communal worker, and government official; born at Shklov, Russia, 1821; died in St. Petersburg March 25, 1888. He received a good home education and then was sent abroad, where he studied philosophy and philology at the...
BERMAN, JEKUTHIEL – Russian-Hebrew novelist; born in 1825; died in Moscow about 1889. He held for over thirty years a responsible position in the employ of the Jewish railroad magnate Samuel Poliakov, and devoted part of his leisure to literary...
BERNARD, ABRAHAM – Russian physician; born in 1762. He studied at London in 1789; practised medicine in Hasenpoth, Courland, Russia; became district physician in Shawli, government of Wilna; was subsequently appointed inspector of various military...
BERNSTAMM, LEOPOLD BERNARD – Russian sculptor; born at Riga April 20, 1859. At the age of thirteen he entered the studio of Prof. D. Jensen at Riga, and at fourteen the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts of St. Petersburg, where he was awarded the highest...
BERNSTEIN, BERNARD – Actor; born at Warsaw in 1861. He sang in the chorus of the Polish opera of that city, and appeared there as a comedian (1882) in the rôle of Grandmother Jachne in A. Goldfaden's comedy, "Die Zauberin." He played in several...
BERNSTEIN, HERMANN – Russian-American writer; born Sept. 20, 1876, at Shirwindt, Russia. When he was seven years of age his parents moved to Mohilev on the Dnieper, and Hermann was educated at the Jewish free school of that city. In 1893 the family...
BERNSTEIN, HIRSCH – Russian-American editor and publisher; born in Vladislavov (Neustadt-Schirvint), government of Suvalki, near the Prussian frontier, March 25, 1846. He received the usual Jewish education and learned to write Hebrew fluently. He...
BERNSTEIN, IGNACY – Polish bibliophile and writer on proverbs; born at Vinnitza, government of Podolia, Jan. 30, 1836, where his father Samson had an important banking business. He was educated by the learned Moses Landau, son of Rabbi Samuel and...
BERNSTEIN, IGNATI ABRAMOVICH – Russian railroad engineer; born in Kremenetz, government of Volhynia, 1846; killed July 5, 1900, on the steamship "Odessa," between Harbin and Chabarovsk. He was educated at the high school of his native town, and at the St....
BERNSTEIN, ISRAEL – Russian Hebrew publicist; born about the middle of the nineteenth century at Velizh, government of Vitebsk; studied pharmacy at Moscow, and worked as a druggist in the colony Shchedrin, near Bobruisk. Bernstein's "Ha-'Atudim...
BERNSTEIN, JOSEPH – Polish physician; born at Warsaw in 1797; died there in 1853. After graduating from the Warsaw Lyceum in 1815, hestudied medicine at the Berlin University, from which he was graduated in 1822. After his return to Poland he was...
BERNSTEIN, KARL ILYICH – Russian jurist, professor of Roman law; born at Odessa Jan. 13, 1842; died at Berlin in 1894. He belongs, on the maternal side, to a Jewish family that has produced several noted scholars. He graduated from the Odessa Gymnasium...
BERNSTEIN, NATHAN OSIPOVICH – Russian physiologist; born at Brody, Galicia, in 1836; died in Odessa Feb. 9, 1891. He received his first education from his grandfather, the eminent Solomon Eger, chief rabbi of the province of Posen; and, on the removal of his...
BERNSTEIN-SINAIEFF, LEOPOLD – Russo-French sculptor; born at Wilna Nov. 22, 1868. He studied drawing in his native town, and at the age of fourteen settled in Paris. As a student under Dalou, his first exhibited work was a bust at the salon of the Champs...