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Herman Rosenthal,

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New York Public Library, New York City.

Contributions:
BLUMENFELDT, SIMON – Russian calligrapher; born in Mitau, Courland, 1770; died at the same place 1826. He possessed the gift of writing in characters so small that they could be read only by the aid of a microscope. The Lord's Prayer was thus...
BLUMENTHAL, NISSEN – Russian ḥazan; born in Jassy, Rumania, 1805; died in Odessa Feb. 9, 1902. Though educated for the rabbinate, his excellent voice and musical ability fitted him for a ḥazan. He emigrated to Russia, became cantor of Berdychev and...
BOBRUISK – City in a district of the same name, in the government of Minsk, Russia; situated on the right bank of the River Berezina. It is mentioned the first time in official documents concerning Jews, issued in 1511. The inhabitants of...
BOGOLYUBSKI, ANDREI – First grand duke of Russia (1169-74). He conquered Kiev after the death of Vladimir Monomakh (1169), but selected the northern city of Vladimir as the capital of the kingdom. At that time Kiev was an important commercial center...
BOGROV, GRIGORI ISAACOVICH – Russian writer; born March 13, 1825, in Poltava; died May 10, 1885, at Derevki, government of Minsk. He received his early education from his father, who was a Hebrew scholar and who left in manuscript a Hebrew work on...
BOGUSLAV – Town in the government of Kiev, Russia. It is mentioned in official documents dated 1195. Nothing is known of the date of the Jewish settlement there. Russian and Polish historians record that Boguslav was one of the cities...
BÖHMER, ISRAEL B. JOSEPH – Russian Neo-Hebraist and lexicographer; born about 1820; died in Slutzk, government of Minsk, April 4, 1860. His father, R. Joseph Böhmer (1796-1864), was a prominent Talmudical authority, one of the firstgraduates from the...
BOJANOWO – A town in the district of Ravditsch, province of Posen, Germany. A Jewish community of one hundred and forty-four souls dwelt in Bojanowo as early as 1793. They were under the protection of the Boyanowskis, the lords of the...
BOLECHOW – Town in the district of Dolina, Galicia, Austria, the population of which in 1890 was 4,402, of whom half were Jews. The Jewish community dates from the day of the foundation of the place in 1612 by Nicholas Giedzinsky....
BOLESLAW I. CHROBRY – King of Poland from 992 to 1025. According to the Polish preacher Matheusz Bembo, a contemporary of Sigismund III. (beginning of the seventeenth century), the first Jews settled in Poland in the reign of Boleslaw Chrobry; and...
BOLESLAW III. KRZYWOUSTY – King of Poland from 1102 to 1139. In his time, according to Naruschewicz, the Jews spread through Poland and Lithuania as far as Kiev, where they carried on a lively trade, especially in salt with Holics and Przemysl, and...
BOLESLAW POBOZNY – Duke of Kalisz; died 1278. He was distinguished for his courage and administrative ability. Boleslaw aimed at furthering the welfare of his subjects rather than at the enlargement of his domains by wars. Emigration from the...
BOLESLAW V. WSTYDLIWY – King of Poland (1228-79). During his reign (1240) the Mongols under Batu-Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, invaded Poland and carried away many thousand Jews as slaves to Asia. His reign is memorable also for the fact that he...
BONA SFORZA – Polish queen; born 1493; died 1557; second wife of King Sigismund I. She was remarkable for her beauty and energy, but thoroughly hated in Poland for her intrigues and avarice. She sold high government offices, and her courtiers...
BORERIM – Name of electors of a congregation, and applied particularly to the five distinguished representatives of the community in the old "kahals" (governing boards) of the Jews in Poland and Lithuania. The borerim were chosen by nine...
BORISOV – Town and district in the government of Minsk, Russia; situated on a peninsula on the left bank of the Beresina, about fifty miles from the capital. The Jewish population (1900) of the town was over 10,000 in a total of 18,348;...
BORISPOL – A village in the district of Pereyaslav, government of Poltawa. Its population of 10,000 embraces about 1,000 Jews. Of the latter, 157 are artisans. Instruction in the Talmud Torah is imparted to 114 Jewish children, the...
BORKUM, KALMAN BEN PHINEAS SELIGMAN – Court Jew of Duke Peter Biron of Courland; born in the middle of the eighteenth century; died at Mitau in 1828, on the same day that his brother Simson died. Owing to the influence of the Borkum brothers, Jews were permitted to...
BORODAVKA – Lithuanian farmer of taxes and distillery privileges; lived in the sixteenth century at Brest-Litovsk. He is first mentioned in a grant issued by King Sigismund August, Jan. 1, 1560, to David Shmerlevich of Brest-Litovsk, and...
BOROWSKI, ISIDOR – Soldier under Bolivar y Ponte, and, later, a Persian general; born at Warsaw, Poland, 1803; killed at the siege of Herat in1837. This military adventurer in Persia and Afghanistan was a Polish Jew who was reared in the United...
BOSPORUS, CIMMERIAN – Name of the ancients for the strait of Yenikale or of Theodosia; on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. The country on both sides of the Cimmerian Bosporus formed in ancient times the kingdom of Bosporus, the latter name being...
BOSPORUS, CIMMERIAN – Name of the ancients for the strait of Yenikale or of Theodosia; on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. The country on both sides of the Cimmerian Bosporus formed in ancient times the kingdom of Bosporus, the latter name being...
BRAFMANN, JACOB – Jewish convert to Christianity; born in Russia; died in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. After having tried many professions, among them photography, tuition, and commerce, he embraced Christianity. Supplied with his...
BRAGIN – Village of Russia, in the government of Minsk, having a population (1898) of 4,520, including 2,248 Jews, of whom 256 were artisans and 31 laborers. The Jews maintain three charitable institutions and a Talmud Torah with 45...
BRAININ, RUBEN – Hebrew publicist and biographer; born in Russia in the last half of the nineteenth century; is now (1902) living in Berlin. At different times Brainin contributed to "Ha-Meliẓ," "Ha-Ẓefirah," "Ha-Maggid," and "Ha-Shiloaḥ." In...