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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
ELMALEH, JOSEPH DE AARON – Honorary chief rabbi of Mogador, Morocco; born at Rabat in 1809; died in London Jan. 9, 1886. He removed to Mogador at the age of seventeen, and, devoting himself to theological study, was elected in 1840 chief rabbi of the...
ELOHIST – Assumed author of those parts of the Hexateuch characterized by the use of the Hebrew word "Elohim" (= "God"). The term is employed by the critical school to designate one (or two) of the component parts of the Hexateuch. Jean...
ELYAS OF LONDON – Presbyter of the Jews of England 1237-1257; died in London 1284. He succeeded Aaron of York, represented London at the so-called "Jewish Parliament" at Worcester in 1240, and in 1249 was allowed to have Abraham fil Aaron as his...
ELZAS, ABRAHAM – Minister and author; born in Elbergen, Holland, in 1835; died at Hull, England, 1880. He was educated in Holland, and went to England from Russia about 1867. He traveled extensively, visiting for scholastic purposes many parts...
EMANUEL, LEWIS – Secretary and solicitor to the Board of Deputies of British Jews; born at Portsmouth May 14, 1832; died in London June 19, 1898. He was educated at Ramsgate, and in 1853 was admitted to practise as a solicitor. He was a...
EMBDEN (EMDEN) – A family deriving its name, perhaps, from Emden, Germany. Carl Adam Emden, privy councilor and high bailiff of Prince Salm-Salm, was ennobled in 1791. It is probable that Eleazar Solomon von Embden (who lived in London about...
EMBDEN, ELEAZAR SOLOMON VON (Eliezer Leser Levi) – German physician and traveler; born at Emrich, near Cleves, between 1770 and 1780; graduated at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1800. From 1804 to 1816 he lived in England; he then settled in Hamburg, and in 1838 returned to England....
ENGLAND – The southern portion of the island of Great Britain. Owing to the dominance of the capital city in England, most of the episodes of Jewish history connected with that country occurred at London, and are narrated under that...
EPHRAEM SYRUS – Church father; born at Nisibis, Syria (whence his surname "Syrus"), or at Edessa, at the beginning of the fourth century. His numerous writings include Syriac commentaries on the Pentateuch and on most of the historical and...
EPILEPSY – Disease of the nervous system, manifesting itself by attacks of unconsciousness, with or without convulsions. It frequently occurs in families where there is a predisposition to neurosis, and tends to appear in the offspring of...
EPIPHANIUS – Bishop of Constantia, Cyprus; born at Bezanduke near Eleutheropolis, Palestine, between 310 and 320 (according to Bartolocci, in 288); died at sea in 403. Epiphanius is supposed to have been born of Jewish parents and to have...
EPSTEIN – The surname "Eppstein" is one of the oldest Jewish family names in the Slavic countries. Nathan ha-Levi Eppstein and Solomon b. Jacob ha-Levi Eppstein are mentioned in the responsa (No. 37) of R. Moses Minz about the middle of...
ERA – A historical period or reckoning of years, dating from some important event or fixed point of time. A striking event of a lasting effect is generally taken as a starting-point for a new era. The Bible contains a few instances of...
ESRA, ELIA – Philanthropist; born at Calcutta Feb. 20, 1830; son of David Joseph Esra; died March, 1886. He was one of the wealthiest merchants of India, and was generally known as "the Indian Rothschild." It is said that he distributed...
EUROPE – I Early Period (163 B. C. to 500 C.E.): The first settlements of Jews in Europe are obscure. There is documentary evidence only for the fact that in 163 B.C. Eupolemus, son of John, and Jason, son of Eleazar, went to Rome as...
EUSEBIUS – Bishop of Cæsarea and the "father of Church history"; born about 270. Though animated by zeal for the conversion of the Jews, he often gives evidence of his bitter dislike of them. In his "Demonstratio Evangelica," which is a...
EVANS, SAMUEL – English pugilist; born in London Jan. 30, 1801; died of consumption Nov. 4, 1843. Evans' first encounter in the prize-ring took place at Knowle Hill, Maidenhead, Berkshire, July 5, 1825, when he beat Ned Stockman in seventeen...
EWALD, FERDINAND CHRISTOPHER – English clergyman; born near Bamberg, Bavaria, 1802; died in Norwood, London, Aug. 9, 1874; baptized at Basel when about 23 years of age; entered (1829) the service of the London Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the...
EXCHANGE, BILLS OF – Instruments, generally in duplicate, ordering persons to pay money in distant parts. According to Hallam ("Europe in the Middle Ages," iii. 339), Jews were the first to issue orders of this kind addressed to particular persons....
EXCHEQUER, OF THE JEWS – A division of the Court of Exchequer in England (1200-90) in which the taxes and the law-cases of the Jews were recorded and regulated. It appears to have arisen out of the estate left by Aaron of Lincoln, which needed a...
EXETER – County-seat of Devon, England. The first Jew mentioned as living in Exeter, about 1181, paid a fine of 10 marks for the king to take charge of his bonds. A number of Jews are mentioned as paying 10 per cent of the debts...
EXILE – The translation of "goleh" (II Sam. xv. 19) and "ẓo'eh" (Isa. li. 14) in the English versions; it also occurs as a translation of "galut" (Isa. xx. 4) and "golah" (Ezek. xii. 4, 11; Ezra viii. 35) in the Revised Version (where...
EXPECTATION OF LIFE – The expected duration of life after any given age, estimated according to fixed tables of mortality based on the mean number of years which individuals, under various conditions, have been found to live. The earliest important...
EYE – Biblical Data: This important organ is mentioned more than 800 times in the Bible, but is described only in its external appearance and significance, according to the experience of daily life. The following parts are mentioned:...
EZEKIEL, EZEKIEL ABRAHAM – English engraver; born in Exeter 1757; died there 1806. He engraved paintings by Opie, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and others, and was also known as a miniature-painter and scientific optician. His son Solomon Ezekiel (b. 1781; d....