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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
GEDALIAH, JUDAH, DON – Portuguese printer; born in Lisbon, where he was engaged as foreman in the printing-house of Eliezer Toledano. Driven out of Portugal at an advanced age, he settled in Salonica, and about 1515 set up the first Hebrew printing...
GELDERN, SIMON VON – Traveler and author; born 1720; died 1774. He was the great-uncle of Heine, who describes him in his "Memoirs" as an adventurer and Utopian dreamer. The appellation "Oriental" was given him because of his long journeys in...
GENERATION, LENGTH OF – The number of years that elapse before the children of one set of human beings arrive at a marriageable age. This number has been defined to be equal to the average male age at marriage, plus one year before child-bearing...
GEOGRAPHERS – Persons proficient in describing the surface of the earth. Jews have contributed in different ways to the advancement of geographical science. In Biblical times geographical information was mainly given in the form of...
GEOMANCY – Divination by means of points made in sand, or by means of pebbles or grains of sand placed on a piece of paper. Some Moslem writers attribute the science of geomancy to Enoch, others to Daniel. It originated in northern Africa...
GERIZIM, MOUNT – Biblical Data: Mountain south of the valley in which Shechem was situated; the present Jabal al-Ṭur (Deut. xi. 29, xxvii. 12; Josh. viii. 33; Judges ix. 7). It is 2,849 feet high, declines sharply to the north, and is sparsely...
GESENIUS, HEINRICH FRIEDRICH WILHELM – Christian Hebraist and Orientalist; born at Nordhausen Feb. 3, 1786; died Oct. 23, 1842. At first devoting his attention to classical studies, he became a teacher at Heiligenstadt in 1809, but in the following year was appointed...
GESHEM – One of the Hebrew words for "rain," applied mostly to the heavy rains which occur in Palestine in the fall and winter. This half of the year is called in the Mishnah "yemot ha-geshamin" (days of rains). In the liturgy of the...
GHOSALKER, SOLOMON DANIEL – Beni-Israel soldier; born 1804; died at Dhulia, India, Oct. 14, 1869. He enlisted in the 25th regiment of the Bombay native light infantry, and served in the Scinde campaign in 1843-45, the Indian mutiny, and the Abyssinian...
GIBEON AND GIBEONITES – Gibeon was one of the four cities of the Hivites, reckoned in Josh. xviii. 25 among the cities of Benjamin. That it was not, however, wholly in the possession of the Israelites until a late period is shown by Josh. ix. and II...
GIBRALTAR – British possession, south of Spain. Jews appear to have settled there shortly after the British took possession of the fortress in 1704, and the synagogue Etz Ḥayyim in Market Lane was founded in 1760, while that in Engineer...
GIDEON, SAMSON – English financier; born in London 1699; died 1762. He was a son of RowlandGideon (died 1720), a West-Indian merchant, who changed his name from the Portuguese "Abudiente" on settling in England, and became a freeman of the city...
GILDS – Associations for the restriction of competition in the production and distribution of commodities. From the twelfth century onward most of the towns of western Europe were organized in such a manner as to restrict each craft and...
GINSBURG, CHRISTIAN DAVID – English Masoretic scholar and Christian missionary; born at Warsaw Dec. 25, 1831. He was converted in 1846, and was for a time connected with the Liverpool branch of the London Society's Mission to the Jews, but retired in 1863,...
GIRTH OF THE CHEST – While among most other races the average chest-girth measures over one-half the average stature, that of the Jews, it has been alleged, does not reach this standard. Goldstein has therefore concluded that the Jews are inferior...
GLASGOW – Seaport and largest city in Scotland, with a population in 1901 of 760,329, of whom about 6,500 were Jews. The Jewish community of Glasgow dates from about 1830. After 1850 a site was acquired at the corner of George and John...
GLASS – A fused mixture of metallic silicates, generally transparent or translucent. Its manufacture dates from the earliest times, glass-blowers being represented on tombs dating from the fifth dynasty in Egypt, of the fourth...
GLOSS – A foreign word or sentence, in Hebrew characters, inserted in Hebrew writings. In order to convey to the reader the exact meaning of a Biblical or Talmudical word or sentence not easily explained in Hebrew, some commentators...
GLOUCESTER – Large town in the west of England, dating back to Roman times. The earliest date mentioned in connection with the Jews of Gloucester is 1168, when an alleged ritual murder of a boy named Harold was charged against them ("Hist....
GNOSTICISM – An esoteric system of theology and philosophy. It presents one of the most obscure and complicated problems in the general history of religion. It forced itself into prominence in the first centuries of the common era, and the...
GO'EL – Next of kin, and, hence, redeemer. Owing to the solidarity of the family and the clan in ancient Israel, any duty which a man could not perform by himself had to be taken up by his next of kin. Any rights possessed by a man...
GOLDENBERG, JOHN – Russian merchant; born on the confines of Russia and Rumania; died 1895. He followed the army in the Crimea (1856-57) as a sutler, and there acquired wealth, which he afterward greatly increased in Burma. He had settled in...
GOLDFADEN, ABRAHAM B. ḤAYYIM LIPPE – Hebrew and Yiddish poet and founder of the Yiddish drama; born at Starokonstantinov, Russia, July 12, 1840. He graduated from the rabbinical school of Jitomir in 1866. For nine years he taught in government schools, first at...
GOLDSMID – A family of English financiers, who trace descent from a certain Uri ha-Levi of Emden, as shown in the pedigree on opposite page.The following were some of the prominent members of the family:Aaron F. Goldsmid: London merchant...
GOLDSMID – A family of English financiers, who trace descent from a certain Uri ha-Levi of Emden, as shown in the pedigree on opposite page.The following were some of the prominent members of the family:Aaron F. Goldsmid: London merchant...