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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Joseph Jacobs, B.A.

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; New York City.

Contributions:
GOLLANCZ, HERMANN – English rabbi; born at Bremen Nov. 30, 1852; educated at Jews' and University colleges, London. He officiated at several synagogues in England, and on the death of the late chief rabbi succeeded Dr. Hermann Adler as rabbi at...
GOLLANCZ, ISRAEL – Secretary of the British Academy; born in London 1864. He was educated at the City of London School and Cambridge University (B.A., 1887). He was lecturer in English at University College 1892-95; lecturer at Cambridgeunder the...
GOMEZ – Genealogical Tree of the Gomez Family. The Gomez family, or rather that branch of it which has established itself in America, traces its descent from Isaac Gomez, a Marano who left Madrid early in the seventeenth century and...
GOMPERTZ, BENJAMIN – British actuary; born in London March 5, 1779; died there July 14, 1865. He was descended from the family of Gomperz of Emmerich. In 1798 he began to contribute to the "Gentleman's Mathematical Companion," for a long time...
GOMPERTZ, ISAAC – English poet; brother of Benjamin and Lewis Gompertz: born 1774; died 1856. He wrote: "June, or Light and Shade," a poem in six parts, London, 1815; "The Modern Antique, or the Muse in the Costume of Queen Anne," London, 1813;...
GOMPERTZ, LEWIS – English inventor of London; died Dec. 2, 1861; brother of Benjamin Gompertz, the mathematician. He devoted his life to the cause of kindness to animals, and in 1824 set forth his views in a work entitled "Moral Enquiries on the...
GOODMAN, TOBIAS – English preacher and author; died after 1824; one of the earliest preachers in English of the London Jewish community Tobias Goodman was a reader and minister at the Denmark Court Synagogue, the first synagogue established in...
GORDON, LORD GEORGE – English agitator and convert to Judaism; born in London on Dec. 26, 1751; died in 1793; son of the third Duke of Gordon. After serving as midshipman and lieutenant in the navy, he entered Parliament for Inverness in 1774. In...
GORDON, SAMUEL – English novelist; born at Buk, Germany, Sept. 10, 1871. He went to England with his parents in 1883, and was educated at the City of London School and Cambridge University. He was appointed secretary of the Great Synagogue,...
GOTENDORF, JAMES (JAMES NATHAN) – German-American merchant and litterateur; born Feb. 9, 1811, at Eutin, Holstein, Germany; died at Hamburg Oct. 5, 1888. He went to the United States in 1830, and for the next twenty years was engaged in the commission business...
GRAPE – The fruit of the grape-vine. The general Hebrew term for ripe grapes when not in clusters is (Gen. xl. 10-11), and of grapes in clusters, (Num. xiii. 23). There are other terms for different kinds of grapes and for grapes in...
GRATZ – American family prominent in the affairs of the city of Philadelphia and of the state of Pennsylvania. According to some authorities, the name "Gratz" is derived from a town in Styria, Austria; according to others, from a city...
GREEN, AARON LEVY – English rabbi; born in London Aug., 1821; died March 11, 1883. A precocious student, at the age of fourteen he was successful as candidate for the post of reader in the Great Synagogue, and at seventeen was appointed minister of...
GREENBAUM, SAMUEL – American lawyer and jurist; born Jan. 23, 1854, in London; went to the United States with his parents in his infancy; educated at the New York public schools and the College of the City of New York, graduating in 1872....
GUASTALLA, ENRICO – Enrico Guastalla.Italian soldier; born at Guastalla 1828; died at Milan Sept. 28, 1903. Though brought up to a commercial life, he joined the army as a volunteer in 1848. He took part in the defense of Rome, and for his bravery...
GUGLIELMO, BENJAMIN – Italian dancing-master; flourished in the fifteenth century at Pesaro. His master was Domenico di Ferrara, in whose "Liber Ballorum" (1460) he is mentioned. Guglielmo himself wrote a treatise on dancing, "Trattato dell' Arte del...
GUGGENHEIM, MEYER – American merchant and mining magnate; born in Langenau, Switzerland, 1828. In 1847 he went to America with his father, who settled at Philadelphia; there Guggenheim began business life in the humblest way, dealing, as a...
GUNSBERG, ISIDOR – English merchant and chess-master; born in Budapest Nov. 2, 1854. When nine years old he went to England, in which country he has since resided, competing in numerous chess tournaments as an English representative. In 1885 he...
HABDALAH – The rabbinical term for the benedictions and prayers by means of which a division is made between times of varying degrees of holiness, e.g., between Sabbath and work-day, festival and work-day, or Sabbath and festival. The...
HAAS, SOLOMON BEN JEKUTHIEL – Moravian rabbi of the first half of the nineteenth century. Haas was successively dayyan at Holleschau and rabbi of Strassnitz, Moravia. He was the author of "Kerem Shelomoh," novellæ on the Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, Yoreh...
HACHUEL, SOL – Moorish martyr; beheaded at Fez 1834. On account of domestic troubles she fled from her home to some Mohammedan friends. Two women among these testified that she had agreed to resign herself to the Mohammedan faith. She refused...
HAFFKINE, WALDEMAR MORDECAI WOLFF – Bacteriologist; born at Odessa, Russia, 1860; graduated from the University of Odessa in 1884 (D.Sc.). He resided for the five following years at Odessa, working in the zoological museum of the university. His researches...
HAFṬARAH – That portion of the Prophets read immediately after the reading of the Torah in the morning services on Sabbaths, feast-days, and the Ninth of Ab, and in the afternoon services on fast-days. The passage chosen usually contains...
ḤAFZ (IBN AL-BIRR) AL-ḲUṬI – Author of the eleventh century, or earlier; according to Steinschneider, possibly identical with Ḥafz (Ḥefeẓ) b. Yaẓliaḥ. Ḥafz al-Ḳuṭi translated the Book of Psalms into Arabic rime. Moses ibn Ezra, in his "Kitab al-Muḥaḍarah,"...
LUBLIN – City of Russian Poland, in the government of the same name; situated 60 miles southeast of Warsaw; in importance the third city of Poland. Numbers of Jews were living in Lublin in the fourteenth century. They were not allowed to...