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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
DONIN, NICHOLAS, OF LA ROCHELLE – Jewish convert to Christianity; lived at Paris in the first half of the thirteenth century. Having expressed his doubts as to the value of the oral tradition, he was in 1225 excommunicated by R. Jehiel of Paris in the presence...
DÖNMEH – A sect of crypto-Jews, descendants of the followers of Shabbethai Ẓebi, living to-day mostly in Salonica, European Turkey: the name (Turkish) signifies "apostates." The members call themselves "Ma'aminim" (Believers), "Ḥaberim"...
DOSITHEUS – Founder of the Dositheans. Founder of a Samaritan sect; lived probably in the first century of the common era. According to Pseudo-Tertullian ("Adversus Omnes Hæreses," i.), he was the first to deny the Prophets—a heresy that...
DUALISM – The system in theology which explains the existence of evil by assuming two coeternal principles—one good, the other evil. This dualism is the chief characteristic of the religion of Zoroaster, which assigns all that is good to...
DUKAN – The "platform" upon which (1) the Temple priests stood to pronounce the benediction (Mid. ii. 6), (2) the Levites stood during their singing (hence, also, name for the Levitical service: compare Meg. 3a), and (3) the teacher or...
DUMAH – Biblical Data: 1. Son of Ishmael (Gen. xxv. 14; I Chron. i. 30). Suḳ ("marKet") Dumah has been found in Dumat al-Jandal in Arabia, called "Jauf" to-day (Yakut, s.v.; Burkhardt, "Travels in Syria," p. 662), and compared with...
DUTY – That which is due to God as the Master of life, or to a fellow man, or to oneself. "Duty" is an ethical term; its recognition as such is urged by the inner voice called conscience (see Wisdom xvii. 11), which tells man what he...
DWARF – Bible. —Biblical Data: The rendering in A. V. of (Lev. xxi. 20, literally "thin"), denoting one of the physical disqualifications of priests for the service. In this sense is taken by Targ. Yer. ( ) and Ibn Ezra ad loc. (comp....
DYES AND DYEING – Though not mentioned as a special art in the Bible, dyeing was probably practised as in Egypt by the fuller andthe tanner. Dyed stuffs are mentioned among the vestments of the high priest and the appurtenances of the Tabernacle....
EAST – Worshipers of the sun turned toward the east, with their backs to the Holy of Holies (Ezek. viii. 16; comp. Suk. v. 4), whereas the Jews of the Exile prayed toward the Temple (Dan. vi. 11; I Kings viii. 38, 44 et seq.; Ber. iv....
EASTER – Name given by Anglo-Saxons to the Christian Passover as the Feast of Resurrection, and rather incorrectly used for the Jewish Passover (Acts xii. 4, A. V.). Originally "Pascha," or "Passover," was the name given by the...
EBED-MELECH – Biblical Data: A Cushite officer at the court of King Zedekiah, who interceded in behalf of Jeremiah, and was sent by the king with thirty (Ewald and Duhm, "three") men to draw up the prophet from the pit (A. V. "dungeon") into...
EBIASAPH – A Levite, descendant of Kohath, and one of the ancestors of the prophet Samuel and of Heman, the singer. In Exodus vi. 24 and I Chronicles vi. 22 (37), ix. 19, Ebiasaph (Abiasaph) occurs as a son of Korah and brother of Assir...
EBIONITES – Sect of Judæo-Christians of the second to the fourth century. They believed in the Messianic character of Jesus, but denied his divinity and supernatural origin; observed all the Jewish rites, such as circumcision and the...
EDEL, JUDAH LÖW BEN MOSES HA-LEVI – Russian preacher; born at Zamoscz, government of Lublin, Poland; died at Slonim 1827. He was a pupil of Elijah Wilna, and, besides possessing great homiletic talent, was a Hebraist and a Talmudic scholar. He wrote: "Safah...
EDUCATION – Biblical and Pre-Talmudical Data: The moral and religious training of the people from childhood up was regarded by the Jews from the very beginning of their history as one of the principal objects of life. Of Abraham the Lord...
EGOZI, MENAHEM BEN MOSES – Turkish Talmudist; lived at Constantinople during the sixteenth century. He was the author of "Gal shel Egozim," expositions on Genesis, published at Belvedere, near Constantinople. He also edited the responsa of the Geonim,...
EGRA, MESHULLAM BEN SAMSON – Austrian rabbi; born in Galicia 1733; died at Presburg Sept. 21, 1785. Egra's father was of Buczacz, Galicia, but Meshullam Egra was at Brody as a boy of nine. At about that age he delivered a casuistic homily in the large...
EḤAD MI YODEA' – Initial words of a Hebrew nursery-rime which, with ḥad Gadya, is recited at the close of the Seder on Passover eve. It consists of thirteen numbers, and was probably recited originally as a dialogue, if not in chorus.Question:...
EINHORN, DAVID – German rabbi, preacher, and theological writer; leader of the Reform movement in America; born at Dispeck, Bavaria, Nov. 10, 1809; died in New York Nov. 2, 1879. A disciple of R. Wolf Hamburger and R. Joshua Moses Falkenau in...
EISENSTADT – Polish family which, when the Jews were compelled to adopt family names, selected the name of Eisenstadt, a town in Hungary, where some of the family became rabbis.Abigdor Eisenstadt, or Abigdor Sofer (ben Moses): Died 24th of...
ELCESAITES – A Judæo-Christian sect of Gnostic tendencies, whose period of influence extended from about 100 to 400. The Church Fathers, who alone mention the sect, derive the name from the alleged founder—'Hλξαί (Epiphanius),' Hλχασΐ...
ELDAD AND MEDAD – Two men who prophesied in the camp during the wanderings in the wilderness (Num. xi. 26-29). According to an old rabbinical tradition, they predicted the war with Gog and Magog. "The king from the land of Magog will unite all...
ELEAZAR BEN JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS OF WORMS – Talmudist and cabalist; born, probably at Mayence, about 1176; died at Worms in 1238. He was a descendant of the great Kalonymus family of Mayence, and a disciple of Judah he-Ḥasid, who initiated him into the study of the...
ELEAZAR BEN ZIṬA ABU AL-SARI – Karaite Bible exegete; lived probably in Egypt in the tenth century. He supported the rigid, ascetic, and Sadducean doctrines advocated by Anan and other Karaites, though at times he opposed Anan's teaching.It is not at all...