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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI HA-KOHEN – Turkish rabbi and liturgist of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; born in Jerusalem. He was a pupil of Moses Galante (the younger), whose "Zebaḥ ha-Shelamim" he brought to Amsterdam, where it was printed in 1708. Joseph...
JOSEPH BEN NOAH HA-BAṢRI (Abu Ya'ḳub Yusuf ibn Nuḥ) – Karaite scholar of the eighth and ninth centuries; brother of Nissim ben Noah. He translated the Pentateuch into Arabic, with a commentary, an abridgment ("talkhiṣ") of which was made by Abu al-Faraj Harun, and excerpts from...
JOSEPH BEN SAMUEL HA-ḤAZZAN – Karaite ḥakam of Halicz, Galicia; died in 1700; pupil of R. Nissim. He was the author of the following works, none of which has been published: "Porat Yosef," on Hebrew grammar and on the excellence of the Hebrew language;...
JOSEPH BEN URI SHERAGA – Russian liturgist of the seventeenth century; born in Kobrin, government of Grodno. He was the author of "Ma'arakah Ḥadashah" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1699), containing three seliḥot in commemoration of the persecutions of the...
JOY – The feeling of gladness and rejoicing.—Biblical Data: Cant. R. i. 4 enumerates ten different terms for joy, and Wünsche ("Die Freude in den Schriften des Alten Bundes," 1896) states that no language possesses as many words for...
JUBILEES, BOOK OF – Midrashic commentary on the Book of Genesis and on part of the Book of Exodus, in the form of an apocalypse, containing the views, legends, and religious practises of the most rigid Pharisaic (or Hasidæan) school of the time of...
JUDAH DE BLANIS – Italian physician; lived at Perugia in the middle of the sixteenth century. David de Pomis, in his "De Medico Hebræo," counts Judah among the most prominent Italian physicians. He was a diligent student of Cabala, and associated...
JUDAH BEN ELI – Karaite grammarian and liturgical poet; died at Jerusalem, where he was rosh yeshibah,in 932. He was the author of a grammatical work entitled "Me'or 'Enayim," in which he divided the Hebrew nouns into thirty-five classes (see...
JUDAH BEN ELIJAH TISHBI – Karaite scholar and liturgical poet; flourished at Belgrade in the first half of the sixteenth century; grandson of Abraham ben Judah. He copied and completed the exegetical work of his grandfather, entitled "Yesod Miḳra," and...
JUDAH POKI (PUKI) BEN ELIEZER TSHELEBI – Karaite scholar; lived at Constantinople; died before 1501; nephew of Elijah Bashyazi. According to Steinschneider, the surname "Poki" is a variation of "Bagi," which is derived from the Turkish "bak" (pronounced "bag"). Judah...
JUDAH BEN SAMUEL HE-ḤASID OF REGENSBURG – Ethical writer and mystic; died Feb. 22, 1217 ("Oẓar Ṭob," 1878, p. 045; Berliner, "Magazin," 1876, p. 220; "Kerem Ḥemed," vii. 71 [erroneously 1216]; "Ben Chananja," iv. 248 [erroneously 1213]). He was descended from an old...
JUDAISM – The religion of the Jewish people (II Macc. ii. 21, viii. 1, xiv. 38; Gal. i. 13 = , Esth. R. iii. 7; comp. , Esth. viii. 17); their system of beliefs and doctrines, rites and customs, as presented in their sacred literature and...
JUDAIZING HERESY (ZHIDOVSTVU-YUSHCHAYA YERES) – A Christian heresy which first made its appearance in Novgorod during the reign of Grand Duke Ivan Vassilyevich III. (second half of the fifteenth century), and from there spread to Pskov and Moscow.From the work of the priest...
JUDAS THE ESSENE – Saint renowned for his prophetic powers in the time of King Aristobulus (105-104 B.C.). Josephus ("Ant." xiii. 11, § 2; "B. J." i. 3, § 5) relates the following characteristic story concerning him: Judas had foretold that the...
JUDAS THE GALILEAN – Leader of a popular revolt against the Romans at the time when the first census was taken in Judea, in which revolt he perished and his followers were dispersed (Acts v. 37); born at Gamala in Gaulonitis (Josephus, "Ant." xviii....
JUDAS ISCARIOT – One of the twelve Apostles of Jesus; he betrayed his master and delivered him up to the priests for judgment (Matt. x. 4; Mark iii. 19; Luke vi. 16). That Jesus should have shown so little foresight in the choice of an apostle...
JUDGMENT, DIVINE – The final decision by God, as Judge of the world, concerning the destiny of men and nations according to their merits and demerits. Justice and righteousness are such fundamental ideas with Judaism and are such essential...
JUSTIN MARTYR – Church Father, who in his works, written in Greek (the Διάλογος πρὸς Τρυφῶνα and Ἀπολογία are cited here as "Dial." and "Ap." respectively), makes frequent mention of the Jews and Judaism. He was born about the year 100 at...
ḲADDISH – Name of the doxology recited, with congregational responses, at the close of the prayers in the synagogue; originally, and now frequently, recited after Scripture readings and religious discourses in schoolhouse or synagogue. It...
KAINAN – Son of Arphaxad and father of Salah; mentioned only in Gen. xi. 13 (LXX.), Book of Jubilees, viii. 1-4, and Luke iii. 36; omitted in all other versions of Gen. xi. 13, Salah being given as the son of Arphaxad. According to the...
ḲALA'I, SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH – Karaite scholar of Chufut-Kale, Crimea; died Feb. 17, 1754. He was the author of a work entitled "Me'il Shemuel," a commentary on Aaron ben Joseph's "Ha-Mibḥar." Ḳala'i did not live to finish the work, and it was completed...
KALAẒ (KHALLAṢ), JUDAH – Cabalist and moralist; lived in Algeria, probably at Tlemçen, at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The surname "Kalaẓ" is derived from the Arabic "khallaṣ" (= "collector of taxes"). Kalaẓ, was descended from a Spanish...
KAMANKER, MOSES MEÏR – Polish Shabbethaian; lived at Zolkiev in the first half of the eighteenth century. An excellent Talmudist, and possessing in the highest degree the art of dissimulation, he was sent by the Polish Shabbethaians as a secret...
ḲANAH ABIGDOR – A cabalistic writer of the fifteenth century, who lived either in Spain (Graetz) or in Italy or in Greece (Jellinek). In the introduction to his book "Sefer ha-Ḳanah," he describes himself as "Ḳanah Abengedor, son of Nahum, of...
KAPPARAH – An animal used as a sort of vicarious sacrifice on the day previous to the Day of Atonement. As a rule, a cock is taken by a male, and a hen by a female person, and after the recitation of Ps. cvii. 17-20 and Job xxxiii. 23-24...