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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
ḲARA, ABIGDOR BEN ISAAC – Bohemian cabalist and liturgical poet; died at Prague April 10, 1439. He lived for a time at Ratisbon, but settled permanently at Prague after 1409. Ḳara enjoyed a high reputation and associated with King Wenceslaus, who liked...
ḲARA, MENAHEM BEN JACOB – Bohemian scholar; flourished at Prague in the first half of the fifteenth century. He was a near relative, perhaps a half-brother, of Abigdor ben Isaac Ḳara, whom he quotes in his writings as "my brother." Ḳara was the author of...
KARAITES AND KARAISM – The Karaites ( ) = "Followers of the Bible") were a Jewish sect, professing, in its religious observances and opinions, to follow the Bible to the exclusion of rabbinical traditions and laws. But Karaism in fact adopted a large...
KARAITES AND KARAISM – The Karaites ( ) = "Followers of the Bible") were a Jewish sect, professing, in its religious observances and opinions, to follow the Bible to the exclusion of rabbinical traditions and laws. But Karaism in fact adopted a large...
KASHER – Original meaning, "fit," "proper" (as in Esth. viii. 5; Eccl. x. 10, xi. 6); later, in rabbinical literature, it took the meaning of "fit," "permitted," in contradistinction to "pasul" and "terefah" (="unfit," "forbidden"),...
KAWWANAH – Aside from the general idea of devotion conveyed by this Hebrew word (see Devotion), the term is used in the plural form by cabalists to denote ideas suggested by certain letters and words. In some prayer-books these are...
ḲIDDUSH HA-SHEM – Terms denoting the highest positive and negative standards of Jewish ethics, the one indicating that everything within man's power should be done to glorify the name of God before the world, the other that everything should be...
KINGDOM OF GOD – Targum to Zech. xiv. 9 and Ob. 21; "Malkut Shaddai ": 'Alenu; and "Malkut Shamayim": Ber. ii. 2, and elsewhere in Mishnah and Haggadah): Reign or sovereignty of God as contrasted with the kingdom of the worldly powers. The hope...
ḲIRḲISANI, ABU YUSUF YA'ḲUB AL – Karaite dogmatist and exegete; flourished in the first half of the tenth century; a native of Circassia (whence the name of Ḳirḳisani). He seems to have traveled throughout the Orient, visiting the centers of Mohammedan...
ḲORBAN – 1. A sacrifice of any kind, whether bloody or bloodless; term used by Josephus in the sense also of a vow-offering, or of something devoted to God ("Ant." iv. 4, § 4; "Contra Ap." i. 22; Mark vii. 11). 2. The sacred treasury in...
KOSTELIZ (COSTELLEZ), ABIGDOR BEN SIMON – Egyptian rabbi and cabalist; born before 1572; died 1659. He studied under Moses ha-Kohen, head of the yeshibah in Egypt, one of his fellow pupils being David Conforte.Bibliography: Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, i. 2; Conforte, Ḳore...
KRYSA, JUDAH LÖB BEN NATHAN – Frankist leader; lived in Galicia in the eighteenth century. He filled the office of rabbi at Nadworna, Galicia, but joined the Frankist movement as soon as it arose and became the leader of the sect. Sent as the representative...
KUTNER, JOSHUA HÖSCHEL – Preacher at Lissa in the middle of the nineteenth century. He was the author of "Ha-Emunah weha-Ḥaḳirah" (Breslau, 1847), containing a philosophical development of the thirteen articles of belief of Maimonides, and extracts from...
KUTTOWER, ABRAHAM GERSHON BEN EPHRAIM – Polish rabbi and cabalist; born at Kuty, Galicia; died at Jerusalem about 1760. He was a follower of Isaac Luria's system of practical Cabala, and spent most of his time in fasting. He was also a recognized authority in...
LABOR – Biblical Data: Labor and the laborer are invested in Jewish literature with a dignity scarcely paralleled in other ancient religions or social systems. Whereas the deities of all the nations of antiquity are depicted as spending...
LAMP, SABBATH – Special lamp or chandelier used in Jewish households on Sabbath eve. The lighting of a special lamp on Sabbath eve, regarded as a religious duty, is of early pharisaic origin (see Sabbath). The early tannaim speak of it as a...
LAW, CIVIL – That system of jurisprudence established by the people of a state or nation for their government as citizens as distinguished from criminal law, which defines crimes and their punishment, and from ecclesiastical law, which...
LAW, READING FROM THE – The custom of reading portions of the Pentateuch at the synagogue on Sabbath and holy days and at other stated times of the year; an institution which made Judaism one of the most powerful factors of instruction and education in...
LEON, MOSES (BEN SHEM-ṬOB) DE – Cabalistic writer; author, or redactor, of the Zohar; born at Leon, Spain, about 1250; lived in Guadalajara, Valladolid, and Avila; died at Arevalo in 1305, while returning to his home. He was familiar with the philosophers of...
LEVI – Biblical Data: Third son of Jacob by Leah and one of the twelve Patriarchs of the tribes of Israel; born at Padan-aram (Gen. xxix. 34, xxxv. 23; I Chron. ii. 1). The name is derived from (= "to be joined"; "Now this time will my...
LEVI BEN GERSHON – French philosopher, exegete, mathematician, and physician; born at Bagnols in 1288; died April 20, 1344. Abraham Zacuto ("Yuḥasin," ed. Filipowski, p. 224) states that Levi died at Perpignan in 1370; but the exact date of his...
LEVI ISAAC BEN MEÏR – Russian rabbi of the first half of the nineteenth century. After having been rabbi at Selichow and Pinsk, Levi Isaac was called to the rabbinate of Berdychev, where he wrote "Ḳedushshat Lewi" (Berdychev, 1816), the first part of...
LEVI BEN JAPHETH (HA-LEVI) ABU SA'ID – Karaite scholar; flourished, probably at Jerusalem, in the first half of the eleventh century. Although, like his father, he was considered one of the greatest authorities among the Karaites, who called him "Al-Shaikh" (the...
LEVIATHAN AND BEHEMOTH – Names of gigantic beasts or monsters described in Job xl. The former is from a root denoting "coil," "twist"; the latter is the plural form of "behemah"="beast."—Biblical Data: Ever since Bochart ("Hierozoicon," iii. 705),...
LEVIATHAN AND BEHEMOTH – Names of gigantic beasts or monsters described in Job xl. The former is from a root denoting "coil," "twist"; the latter is the plural form of "behemah"="beast."—Biblical Data: Ever since Bochart ("Hierozoicon," iii. 705),...