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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
POPPERS, MEÏR BEN JUDAH LÖB HA-KOHEN ASHKENAZI – Bohemian rabbi and cabalist; born at Prague; died at Jerusalem in Feb. or March, 1662. He studied the Cabala under Israel Ashkenazi and Jacob Ẓemaḥ, and he wrote a great number of works, all in the spirit of Isaac Luria;...
POTCHI, MOSES – Karaite scholar; lived at Constantinople in the second half of the sixteenth century. He belonged to the Maruli family, the name of which was adopted by his son Joseph. Simḥah Luzki attributes to Potchi the unpublished work...
PREDESTINATION – The belief that the destiny of man is determined beforehand by God. "Predestination" in this sense is not to be confounded with the term "preordination," applied to the moral agents as predetermining either election to eternal...
PREEXISTENCE – Existence previous to earthly life or to Creation, attributed in apocryphal and rabbinical writings to persons and things forming part of the divine plan of human salvation or the world's government.Preexistence of the Souls of...
PREEXISTENCE – Existence previous to earthly life or to Creation, attributed in apocryphal and rabbinical writings to persons and things forming part of the divine plan of human salvation or the world's government.Preexistence of the Souls of...
PSEUDO-MESSIAHS – Two Messiahs. Persons who claim to be the deliverers of Israel divinely appointed to bring about the establishment of the promised Messianic kingdom. Some of the pseudo-Messiahs who have arisen at various epochs were impostors...
PURGATORY – An intermediate state through which souls are to pass in order to be purified from sin before they are admitted into the heavenly paradise. The belief in purgatory, fundamental with the Roman Catholic Church, is based by the...
PURIM – Jewish feast celebrated annually on the l4th, and in Shushan, Persia, also on the 15th, of Adar, in commemoration of the deliverance of the Persian Jews from the plot of Haman to exterminate them, as recorded in the Book of...
RABBI – Rabban," "Rabbi," and "Rab." —The Title: Hebrew term used as a title for those who are distinguished for learning, who are the authoritative teachers of the Law, and who are the appointed spiritual heads of the community. It is...
RABBI – Rabban," "Rabbi," and "Rab." —The Title: Hebrew term used as a title for those who are distinguished for learning, who are the authoritative teachers of the Law, and who are the appointed spiritual heads of the community. It is...
RECORDING ANGEL – The angel that, in popular belief, records the deeds of all individuals for future reward or punishment. The keeping of a general account between man and his Maker is represented by Akiba thus: "Man buys in an open shop where...
REFORM JUDAISM FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE REFORM JEW – Reform" a Misnomer. By Reform Judaism is denoted that phase of Jewish religious thought which, in the wake of the Mendelssohnian period and in consequence of the efforts made during the fifth decade of the nineteenth century to...
REFORM JUDAISM FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE REFORM JEW – Reform" a Misnomer. By Reform Judaism is denoted that phase of Jewish religious thought which, in the wake of the Mendelssohnian period and in consequence of the efforts made during the fifth decade of the nineteenth century to...
REPENTANCE – The noun occurs only in post-Biblical literature, but it is derived from the vocabulary of the Bible. Maimonides' dictum, "All the prophets preach repentance" ("Yad," Teshubah, vii. 5), echoes the opinion of Talmudic authority...
REPENTANCE – The noun occurs only in post-Biblical literature, but it is derived from the vocabulary of the Bible. Maimonides' dictum, "All the prophets preach repentance" ("Yad," Teshubah, vii. 5), echoes the opinion of Talmudic authority...
RESURRECTION – Biblical Data: Like all ancient peoples, the early Hebrews believed that the dead go down into the underworld and live there a colorless existence (comp. Isa. xiv. 15-19; Ezek. xxxii. 21-30). Only an occasional person, and he an...
REVELATION (BOOK OF) – Jewish Origin. The last book in the New Testament canon, yet in fact one of the oldest; probably the only Judæo-Christian work which has survived the Paulinian transformation of the Church. The introductory verse betrays the...
REVELATION – Term used in two senses in Jewish theology; it either denotes (1) what in rabbinical language is called "Gilluy Shekinah," a manifestation of God by some wondrous act of His which overawes man and impresses him with what he...
RICCIO, PAULO – Jewish convert to Christianity in the first half of the sixteenth century. He was a native of Germany, and after his conversion became professor of philosophy in the University of Pavia; subsequently he was physician to Emperor...
SACRIFICE – The act of offering to a deity for the purpose of doing homage, winning favor, or securing pardon; that which is offered or consecrated. The late generic term for "sacrifice" in Hebrew is , the verb being , used in connection...
SADDUCEES – Name from High Priest Zadok. Name given to the party representing views and practises of the Law and interests of Temple and priesthood directly opposite to those of the Pharisees. The singular form, "Ẓadduḳi" (Greek,...
SALIVA – Spittle. To spit in a person's face was regarded as an expression of the utmost contempt for him (Num. xii. 14; Deut. xxv. 9; Isa. 1. 6; Job xxx. 10; Matt. xxvi. 67; Lev. R. ix. 9). It was also a sign of disrespect to spit in...
SAMSON BEN JOSEPH OF FALAISE – Tosafist of the twelfth century; grandfather of the tosafists Isaac ben Abraham of Dampierre and Samson of Sens. Jacob Tam, with whom he carried on a scientific correspondence, held him in high esteem.Samson was the author of...
SARGENES – A white linen garment which resembles a surplice and consists of a long, loose gown with flowing sleeves and with a collar laced in front, a girdle of the same material, and a skullcap to match. The name is derived from "sarge"...
SASON, ABRAHAM – Italian cabalist; flourished in Venice at the beginning of the seventeenth century. He was the author of the following works: "Ḳol Mebasser" (Venice, 1605), a commentary on Daniel; "Ḳol Sason," on the arrival of the Messiah,...