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Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York; President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
SAUL OF TARSUS – The actual founder of the Christian Church as opposed to Judaism; born before 10 C.E.; died after 63. The records containing the views and opinions of the opponents of Paul and Paulinism are no longer in existence; and the...
SECOND DAY OF FESTIVALS – History. Day added by the Rabbis to all holy days except Yom Kippur. Jews living at a distance from Jerusalem were informed by messengers of the day on which the New Moon ("Rosh Ḥodesh") had been announced by the bet din. These...
SEDBON, JOSEPH – Rabbinical and cabalistic author of Tunis in the second half of the eighteenth century. He composed a cabalistic treatise entitled "Ahabat Adonai," designed as a commentary on the "Idra Ẓuṭa." This work, although written in...
SENSES, THE FIVE – The Philosophers. According to the Aristotelian psychology, the human soul possesses, besides the rational and nutritive faculties, that of perceiving external objects, through the medium of bodily organs which are adapted to...
SHABBETHAI ẒEBI B. MORDECAI – Pseudo-Messiah and cabalist; founder of the Shabbethaian sect; born on the Ninth of Ab (July 23, 1626) at Smyrna; died, according to some, on the Day of Atonement (Sept. 30), 1676, at Duleigno, a small town in Albania. He was of...
SHEKINAH – In the Targumim. The majestic presence or manifestation of God which has descended to "dwell" among men. Like Memra (= "word"; "logos") and "Yeḳara" (i.e., "Kabod" = "glory"), the term was used by the Rabbis in place of "God"...
SHEM-ṬOB BEN ABRAHAM IBN GAON – Settles in Safed. Spanish Talmudist and cabalist; born at Soria, Spain, 1283; died, probably in Palestine, after 1330. From his genealogy given in the preface to his "Keter Shem-Ṭob)," Azulai ("Shem ha-Gedolim," ii., s.v. "Keter...
SHEMA' – Initial word of the verse, or chapter, recited as the confession of the Jewish faith. Originally, the "Shema'" consisted only of the one verse, Deut. vi. 4 (see Suk. 42a; Ber. 13b); the regular "Shema'" in the liturgy, however,...
SHEMINI 'AẒERET – Eighth day of Sukkot, "'aẓeret" being the name given to it in Lev. xxiii. 36; Num. xxix. 35; Neh. viii. 18; II Chron. vii. 9. The eighth day of Sukkot is not mentioned in Deut. xvi., and is found only in those parts of the Bible...
SHEMINI 'AẒERET – Eighth day of Sukkot, "'aẓeret" being the name given to it in Lev. xxiii. 36; Num. xxix. 35; Neh. viii. 18; II Chron. vii. 9. The eighth day of Sukkot is not mentioned in Deut. xvi., and is found only in those parts of the Bible...
SHOBACH – Captain of the army of Hadarezer, King of Aram, who was defeated and slain by David at Helam (II Sam. x. 16-18). According to Soṭah viii., Shobach was as famous for his strength as Goliath, and the Ammonites, as allies of Aram,...
SICK, VISITING THE – To visit the sick in order to show them sympathy, cheer them, and aid and relieve them in their suffering is declared by the Rabbis to be a duty incumbent upon every Jew, even if the sick one is a Gentile (Giṭ. 61a). While there...
SIMEON BEN YOḤAI – Pupil of Akiba. Tanna of the second century; supposed author of the Zohar; born in Galilee; died, according to tradition, at Meron, on the 18th of Iyyar (= Lag be-'Omer). In the Baraita, Midrash, and Gemara his name occurs...
SIMON CEPHAS – The first of the Twelve Apostles; the chief disciple of Jesus and head of the early Church. His life became at an early stage the subject of popular legends, which extended even to his name. Besides the name of Simon, which had...
SIMON MAGUS – A personage frequently mentioned in the history of primitive Christianity. According to Acts viii. 9-23, he was greatly fearedthroughout Samaria on account of his magic powers; but he permitted himself to be baptized, and wished...
SIMON MAGUS – A personage frequently mentioned in the history of primitive Christianity. According to Acts viii. 9-23, he was greatly fearedthroughout Samaria on account of his magic powers; but he permitted himself to be baptized, and wished...
SKEPTIC – In a specific sense, one who remains in a state of doubt, declaring all positive truth, religiousor philosophical, to be unattainable to man. This type of skeptic can scarcely be found in Judaism. However bold the Jewish...
SOLOMON BEN JEROHAM – Karaite exegete and controversialist; flourished at Jerusalem between 940 and 960. He was considered one of the greatest authorities among the Karaites, by whom he is called "the Wise" ("ha-Hakam"), and who mention him after...
SON OF GOD – Term applied to an angel or demigod, one of the mythological beings whose exploits are described in Gen. vi. 2-4, and whose ill conduct was among the causes of the Flood; to a judge or ruler (Ps. lxxxii. 6, "children of the Most...
SOUL – Biblical and Apocryphal Views. The Mosaic account of the creation of man speaks of a spirit or breath with which he was endowed by his Creator (Gen. ii. 7); but this spirit was conceived of as inseparably connected, if not...
SOUL – Biblical and Apocryphal Views. The Mosaic account of the creation of man speaks of a spirit or breath with which he was endowed by his Creator (Gen. ii. 7); but this spirit was conceived of as inseparably connected, if not...
SPAETH, JOHANN PETER (MOSES GERMANUS) – Leaves Catholicism for Lutheranism. Convert to Judaism; born at Venice in the first half of the seventeenth century; died at Amsterdam April 27, 1701. On account of rumors of impending war, his father, who was a poor shoemaker,...
SUFISM – The mystic and ascetic doctrines of the Mohammedan sect of the Sufis, whose name is derived from the Arabic noun "ṣuf" (wool), having reference to the woolen cloth worn by its adherents to typify the primitive simplicity...
SULTANSKY, MORDECAI – Karaite ḥakam; born at Lutzk in 1785; died at Eupatoria, in the Crimea, before 1878. He was one of the most prominent scholars of the Karaite sect during the nineteenth century. He officiated as ḥakam of Lutzk (in succession to...
TAXO – The mysterious name of "the man of the tribe of Levi" who, under a Roman governor in the time of Herod, according to the Assumptio Mosis, ix. 1-7, underwent martyrdom with his seven sons amidst the cruel persecution of the...