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Ludwig Blau, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary; Editor of "Magyar Zsidó Szemle"; Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
LILITH – Female demon. Of the three Assyrian demons Lilu, Lilit, and Ardat Lilit, the second is referred to in Isa. xxxiv. 14. Schrader ("Jahrb. für Protestantische Theologie," i. 128)takes Lilith to be a goddess of the night; she is...
LITURGY – Divisions of Divine Service. The Jewish religious service falls, generally, into two main divisions—instruction and prayer. This division of the service has existed since the earliest times. In the time of Isaiah the people...
LIVER – A glandular organ situated, in man, to the right beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. In six passages of the Bible in which the liver is mentioned the expression is met with in reference to the part of the organ which...
LOTS – Means of determining chances. Primitive peoples, and occasionally those on a higher plane of culture, resort to lots for the purposes of augury. They spin a coconut or entangle strips of leather in order to obtain an omen....
MAGEN DAWID – The hexagram formed by the combination of two equilateral triangles; used as the symbol of Judaism. It is placed upon synagogues, sacred vessels, and the like, and was adopted as a device by the American Jewish Publication...
MAGIC – The pretended art of producing preternatural effects; one of the two principal divisions of occultism, the other being Divination. The effects produced may be either physical (as a storm or death under conditions insufficient to...
MAGYAR ZSIDÓ SZEMLE – Hungarian Jewish monthly review; established in 1884 by Josef Simon, secretary of the Jewish chancery, Wilhelm Bacher, and Josef Bánóczi, the two latter being professors in the "Landesrabbinerschule" of Budapest. Its purpose is...
MANUSCRIPTS – Writing Material. The first materials used for writing were such substances as stone, wood, and metal, upon which the characters were engraved with a stylus. At a very early time, however, animal substances were employed, and...
MEGILLOT, THE FIVE – The "five rolls" ( )—Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther. At the time of the formation of the canon of the Hagiographa these five books were not regarded as a unit, nor is the name "Megillah" as applied...
MEṬAṬRON – Name of an angel found only in Jewish literature. Elisha b. Abuyah, seeing this angel in the heavens, believed there were "two powers" or divinities (Ḥag. 15a, above). When God wept over the destruction of the Temple, Meṭaṭron...
NAZARITE – One who lives apart; one who has made a vow of abstinence; in the former sense used as early as Sifra, Emor, iv. 3; Sifre, Num. 23.Nazarite Laws. —Biblical Data: Three restrictions are imposed upon the Nazarite, according to...
NECROMANCY – Divination by aid of the dead is said to have been common among the Persians (Strabo, xvi. 2, 39, νεκυονάντεις), and at a later time among the Greeks and Romans as well (see passages in Winer, "B. R." ii. 26). The Israelites...
ŒNOMAUS OF GADARA – Pagan philosopher; lived during the reign of the emperor Hadrian (117-138); he belonged to the school of the younger Cynics. In his book entitled "The Detection of Witches," from which Eusebius ("Præparatio Evangelica," §§...
OMEN – Occurrence or incident regarded as fore-shadowing a favorable or unfavorable issue in a certain conjuncture. The belief in prognostic signs is closely connected with Divination and mantic, from which it is distinguished,...
ORDEAL – A form of judicial trial wherein supernatural aid was invoked in place of evidence; an appeal to the immediate judgment of God. The ordeal (Anglo-Saxon, "ordel" = "judgment") was widely disseminated among the Aryan peoples. It...
ORION – One of the constellations. The Septuagint translates "Kesil" in Isa. xiii. 10 and Job xxxviii. 31 by "Orion"; the Targum renders it in these two passages and in Job ix. 9 by "Nefila" (lit. "giant"), while the Peshiṭta in Amos v....
PHYLACTERIES – Legal View: Phylactery-Bag.(In the British Museum.)The laws governing the wearing of phylacteries were derived by the Rabbis from four Biblical passages (Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18; Ex. xiii. 9, 16). While these passages were...
PLEIADES – The word "Kimah," which occurs in three passages in the Bible (Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 31, and Amos v. 8), each time in connection with Orion, is translated by the Septuagint once by Πλειάδα (Job xxxviii. 31); and Aquila, who...
PREEXISTENCE – Existence previous to earthly life or to Creation, attributed in apocryphal and rabbinical writings to persons and things forming part of the divine plan of human salvation or the world's government.Preexistence of the Souls of...
PSALMOMANCY – The employment of the Psalms in incantations. The general use of the Bible for magic purposes has been discussed under Bibliomancy. Inasmuch as the employment of the Psalms is mentioned there, a brief summary, together with...
RAPHAEL – One of the archangels. The word occurs as a personal name in I Chron. xxvi. 7 (A. V. and R. V. "Rephael"), but it is not found as the name of an angel in the canonical books, as are the names of Michael and Gabriel. This must be...
RAZIEL – Angel, first named in the Slavonic Book of Enoch (written before the common era; see Jew. Encyc. i. 591, s.v. Angelology), where, under the name "Raguel" or "Rasuel," he is mentioned together with Shemiel or Shemuel. Apart from...
RAZIEL, BOOK OF – Collection of secret writings, probably compiled and edited by the same hand, but originally not the work of one author. This appears from the fact that the book contradicts itself in regard to the person to whom its contents...
SALAMANDER – According to the Talmud, a species of toad which lives on land but enters the water at the breeding season (Ḥul. 127a; Lewysohn, "Z. T." §§ 277, 278). It generally appears, however, as a fabulous animal, generated in fire and...
SAMAEL – Prince of the demons, and an important figure both in Talmudic and in post-Talmudic literature, where he appears as accuser, seducer, and destroyer. His name is etymologized as = "the venom of God," since he is identical with...