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Ludwig Blau, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary; Editor of "Magyar Zsidó Szemle"; Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
SANDALFON – Name of an angel. It is a Greek formation and synonymous with συνάδελφος (= "cobrother"; see "Orient, Lit." xii. 618; Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb." iii. 553a; Krauss, in "Byzantinische Zeitschrift," ii. 533; idem, "Lehnwörter," ii....
SATAN – In the Bible. Term used in the Bible with the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi. 14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I...
SCROLL OF THE LAW – Every One to Possess a Sefer Torah. The Pentateuch, written on a scroll of parchment. The Rabbis count among the mandatory precepts incumbent upon every Israelite the obligation to write a copy of the Pentateuch for his personal...
SHAMIR – Term designating a hard stone in the Targums, but in the Bible thrice (Jer. xvii. 1; Ezek. iii. 9; Zech. vii. 12) connoting Adamant, a substance harder than any stone and hence used as a stylus (Löw, "Graphische Requisiten." i....
SHEBA, QUEEN OF – In the Bible, Josephus, and the Talmud. Monarch of a south-Arabian tribe, and contemporary with Solomon, whom she visited. The Queen of Sheba, hearing of the wisdom and wealth of Solomon, visited him at Jerusalem, accompanied by...
SHEKINAH – In the Targumim. The majestic presence or manifestation of God which has descended to "dwell" among men. Like Memra (= "word"; "logos") and "Yeḳara" (i.e., "Kabod" = "glory"), the term was used by the Rabbis in place of "God"...
SHI'UR ḲOMAH – Esoteric work on the dimensions of the body of God and of His several members. It exists apparently only in fragments, the largest, which often has been taken to be the entire work, being included in the "Sefer Raziel." These...
SOFERIM – Position Among the "Smaller Treatises." Talmudic treatise dealing especially with the rules relating to the preparation of the holy books, as well as with the regulations for the reading of the Law. It belongs to the so-called...
SOUL – Biblical and Apocryphal Views. The Mosaic account of the creation of man speaks of a spirit or breath with which he was endowed by his Creator (Gen. ii. 7); but this spirit was conceived of as inseparably connected, if not...
TALMUDIC LAW – Three Historical Periods of Jewish Law. The development of thousands of years is represented by the Jewish law asit is found in the Shulḥan 'Aruk, Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, of Joseph Caro (16th cent.), as well as in numerous other works...
TEN – The art of counting was founded on the number of the fingers and toes, which constituted the basis for the quinary, decimal, and vigesimal systems, according to whether one hand was used or two, or whether the toes were included...
TETRAGRAMMATON – The quadriliteral name of God, , which is thus referred to in Josephus, in the Church Fathers, in the magic papyri, and in the Palestinian Talmud (Yoma 40a, below), whence it has passed into the modern languages. Other...
TORAH – Name applied to the five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The contents of the Torah as a whole are discussed, from the point of view of modern Biblical criticism, under Pentateuch, where a...
URIEL – Name of an archangel. Of the four chief angels, Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel, who preside over the four quarters of the globe (Jensen, "Kosmologie der Babylonier," p. 163), and who are frequently grouped together, Uriel...
URIM AND THUMMIM – Biblical References. —Biblical Data: Objects connected with the breastplate of the high priest, and used as a kind of divine oracle. Since the days of the Alexandrian translators of the Old Testament it has been asserted that...
VELLUM – Skins of animals constituted the ancient Oriental writing-material (Herodotus, v. 58; Strabo, xv. 1; Pauly-Wissowa, "Real-Encyc." ii. 944), and the Jews employed them as early as the Biblical period (Blau, "Das Althebräische...
WORSHIP, IDOL- – Historical Outlines. All idolatrous cults are condemned by the Biblical insistence on worship of Yhwh only. The Decalogue begins with the command to reverence the one true God and to recognize no other deities. On this theme the...