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Max Schloessinger, Ph.D.

Librarian and Lecturer on Biblical Exegesis, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
ḤASDAI, ABRAHAM BEN SAMUEL HALEVI – Hebrew translator; lived in Barcelona about 1230. He is supposed to have been the son of the poet Samuel ibn Abraham ibn Ḥasdai ha-Levi (1165-1216; Grätz, "Geschichte," vi. 195). Abraham Ḥasdai was an enthusiastic partizan of...
HASIDÆANS – Account in II. Macc. Religious party which commenced to play an important rôle in political life only during the time of the Maccabean wars, although it had existed for quite some time previous. They are mentioned only three...
ḤASON, JOSEPH IBN – Talmudist; author of a work entitled "Sefer Bet ha-Melek," containing a commentary on Maimonides' Mishneh Torah; responsa on Oraḥ. Ḥayyim, Yoreh De'ah, and Ḥoshen Mishpaṭ, and novellæ on the Pentateuch (Salonica,...
HAURAN – A region east of the Jordan and north of Gilead, reaching east to the desert. It is mentioned in Ezek. xlvii. 16, 18, in connection with the eastern border of the land of Israel, as the land between Damascus and Gilead. The...
ḤAYYIM BEN JEHIEL ḤEFEẒ ZAHAB – Talmudist of the fourteenth century; died 1314. He was a brother of Asher ben Jehiel (Rosh). He was educated by his father, Jehiel, and by Samuel of Evreux. Some of his responsa, perhaps all, are included in the "She'elot...
ḤAYYIM (JOSHUA), PHEIBEL BEN ISRAEL, OF TARNIGROD – Geographer of the eighteenth century. He wrote a geography of Palestine, in Hebrew, entitled "Ḳaẓwe Areẓ" (Zolkiev, 1772). In the second edition (Grodno, 1818) it bore the title "Ereẓ Yisrael li-Gebuloteha Sabib."Bibliography:...
ḤAYYUN, NEHEMIAH ḤIYYA BEN MOSES – Excommunicated at Jerusalem. Bosnian cabalist; born about 1650; died about 1730. His parents, of Sephardic descent, lived in Sarajevo, Bosnia, where probably he was born, although in later life he pretended that he was a...
ḤAZZAN – Communal official. The word is probably borrowed from the Assyrian "ḥazanu," "ḥazannu" (overseer, director; see Delitzsch, "Assyrisches Handwörterbuch," p. 272a; connected with the Hebrew , meaning "vision"). "Ḥazanuti" (plural...
HEPHER – 1. A son of Gilead (Num. xxvi. 32, xxvii. 1; Josh. xvii. 2-3). The clan was known as the Hepherites (Num. xxvi. 32). 2. One of David's captains (I Chron. xi. 36). 3. Member of the tribe of Judah (I Chron. iv. 6). 4. Royal city...
HERES – 1. City in Egypt, mentioned in Isa. xix. 18: "In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the Lord of hosts; one shall be called 'Ir ha-Heres" (A. V. "the city of...
HESHBON – Town originally belonging to Moab; mentioned in Num. xxi. 25 et seq.; Deut. i. 4, iii. 6, iv. 26, xxix. 7; Josh. ix. 10; xii. 2 et seq.; xiii. 10, 21; Isa. xv. 4; xvi. 8, 9; Jer. xlviii. 2; Cant. vii. 5 (A. V. 4); Judith v. 15;...
HESS, MOSES (MORITZ) – Jewish socialist and nationalist; born at Bonn June 21, 1812; died in Paris April 6, 1875; buried in the Jewish cemetery at Cologne. His grandfather, who had come from Poland, instructed him in Bible and Talmud, but on the whole...
HEWERS OF WOOD – Menial servants. The Gibeonites who attempted to deceive Joshua were condemned by the princes of Israel to be hewers of wood and drawers of water to the congregation (Josh. ix. 21, 23). In Deut. xxix. 11 the hewers of wood are...
HEZEKIAH BEN MANOAH – French exegete of the thirteenth century. In memory of his father, who lost his right hand through his stead-fastness in the faith, Hezekiah wrote (about 1240) a cabalistic commentary on the Pentateuch, under the title...
HEZEKIAH BEN PARNAK – Palestinian amora; lived at the end of the third century. The only mention of him is in Berakot 63a, in connection with the transmission of Johanan bar Nappaḥa's exegetical explanation of the fact that the section concerning the...
HIBAT ALLAH ABU AL-BARAKAT B. 'ALI B. MALKA (MALKAN) AL-BALADI – Arabian physician of the twelfth century; born in Bassora. He went to Bagdad in order to study medicine under the physician Sa'id b. Hibat Allah; and as the latter did not admit Jews or Christians to his lectures, Abu al-Barakat...
ḤIDDUSHIM – Technical name of a certain class of commentaries, consisting of a number of single, "new" remarks, additions, and explanations in connection with a text and its earlier commentaries. The ḥiddushim commentaries differ from the...
HIEREI – Term used to denote the priests( ) in the constitution of the Jewish community in Rome. Even so late as the fourth century of the common era they had a distinct position in the religious life of the community, and ranked higher...
HILDESHEIMER, ISRAEL (AZRIEL) – German rabbi, and leader of Orthodox Judaism; born at Halberstadt May 20, 1820; died at Berlin July 12, 1899; son of R. Löb Glee Hildesheimer. He attended the "Hasharat-Ẓewi" school in Halberstadt, and, after reaching the age of...
HIPPOCRATES – Greek physician; born in Cos 460 B.C.; died at Larissa in Thessaly about 360 B.C. He studied medicine under Herodicus of Selymbria and under his father, Heraclides, and philosophy under Gorgias of Leontini and Democritus of...
ḤIWI AL-BALKHI – Exegete and Biblical critic of the last quarter of the ninth century; born at Balkh, Persia. He was the author of a work in which he offered two hundred objections to the divine origin of the Bible (Judah ben Barzillai's...
HORNS OF MOSES – Owing to the representations of the old painters and sculptors, it has become a wide-spread belief that Moses, when he came down from Mount Sinai with the tables of the Law, had two horns on his forehead. This strange idea,...
HOST, DESECRATION OF – Defiling the host or sacred wafer of the mass. In the Middle Ages theJews were frequently accused of desecrating the host, an accusation equal in gravity to that of desecrating relics and images of Jesus and the saints. This...
HURWITZ, ḤAYYIM BEN JOSHUA MOSES ABRAHAM HA-LEVI – Russian rabbi in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He was the author of: "Sefer Mayim Ḥayyim," explanations of the Pentateuch and the five Megillot (Dyhernfurth, 1690); "Sefer Mayim Ḥayyim Sheni," supplement to the...
ḤUSAIN, IMMANUEL BEN MENAHEM SEFARDI IBN – Talmudist of the sixteenth century; author of "Kelale ha-Gemara," rules of the Gemara, published in the collection of Abraham ibn 'Aḳra ("Sefer me-Harare Nemerim," Venice, 1599). This small work is divided into four chapters:...