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Peter Wiernik,

Journalist, New York City.

Contributions:
BRÜCK, SOLOMON B. ḤAYYIM – Austrian Hebraist; born in the latter part of the eighteenth century; died about 1846. He is the author of "Ḥaḳirat ha-Emet" (Altona, 1839; 2d ed., Vienna, 1842), a volume of collectanea, including in the first edition a sermon...
BUCHHOLZ, CARL AUGUST – German Christian lawyer and author; born in the latter half of the eighteenth century; died at Lübeck Nov. 15, 1843. He was a doctor of laws and of philosophy, and, at the time of his death, occupied the position of second...
BUCHHOLZ, P. – German rabbi; born Oct. 2, 1837; died in Emden, Hanover, Sept. 20, 1892. He became rabbi of Märkisch-Friedland in 1863, where he remained till 1867, in which year he was called to the rabbinate of Stargard, Pomerania. In 1875 he...
BÜRGER, HUGO – German dramatist; born in Breslau April 22, 1846; now (1902) living at Berlin. He came to Berlin at the age of twelve, and at seventeen began to produce short dramatic works, one of which, a one-act comedy entitled "Nur Nicht...
BYELOSTOK – Early Tradition. Town in the government of Grodno, Russia; by rail 52 miles southwest of Grodno; one of the youngest in Lithuania. Little is known of the history of its Jewish community. There is a tradition (see "Ha-Ḳol," i.,...
BYK, EMIL – Austrian lawyer and deputy; born Jan. 14, 1845, at Janow, near Trembowla, in Galicia.In 1885 Byk was chosen chairman of the charity committee of the Cultusrath of Lemberg, and is now (1902) president of the Jewish community...
CAHAN, ABRAHAM – Russian-American novelist and labor leader; born in Podberezhye, government of Wilna, July 7, 1860. His grandfather was a rabbi and preacher in Vidz, government of Vitebsk; and his father was a teacher of Hebrew and Talmud. The...
CANAIM OF CAGLIARI – Italian archeologist of the eighth century, of whom nothing is known except that, like his contemporary towns-man Abraham di Cagliari, he was engaged in copying and deciphering Phenician and Greek inscriptions.Bibliography:...
CARO, ABRAHAM B. RAPHAEL – Turkish rabbi; flourished at Adrianople in the first half of the eighteenth century. He was a descendant of R. Joseph Caro, and was the stepson and pupil of R. Eliezer b. Jacob Naḥum, author of "Ḥazon Naḥum" (Constantinople,...
CARO, JOSEPH ḤAYYIM B. ISAAC SELIG – German-Russian rabbi; born 1800; died in Wloclawek, government of Warsaw, April 21, 1895. He was educated as an Orthodox Talmudist, and married the daughter of R. Ẓebi Hirsch Amsterdam of Konin, government of Kalisz in Russian...
CHASHKES, MOSES (LÖB) B. JACOB – Neo-Hebrew poet and Russian translator; born in Wilna Sept. 27, 1848; removed later to Odessa. His first collection of Hebrew songs, entitled "Nite'e Na'amanim," appeared in Warsaw in 1869. In the same year appeared "Ha-Peraḥim"...
COHEN, NAHUM – Russian journalist; born in 1863; died at Yekaterinoslav Jan. 27, 1893. His ghetto story, "V Glukhom Myestechkye" (In a Dull Townlet), published first in "Vyestnik Yevropy," Nov., 1892, appeared also in book form, Moscow, 1895....
COSTUME – In Biblical Times: The general Hebrew designation for "costume" is "beged," applied indifferently to the garments of rich and poor, male and female. Other general designations are "keli," "lebush," "malbush," "tilboshet," and...
CRACOW – Fifteenth Century. A city of Galicia, Austria, formerly the capital of the kingdom of Poland; founded about 700 C.E. There are no records of the early history of the Jewish community of Cracow, but it is probable that the Jews...
CRACOW – Fifteenth Century. A city of Galicia, Austria, formerly the capital of the kingdom of Poland; founded about 700 C.E. There are no records of the early history of the Jewish community of Cracow, but it is probable that the Jews...
CZARTORYSKI, PRINCE ADAM GEORG – Polish statesman and patriot; born in Warsaw Jan. 14, 1770; died in Montfermeil Castle, near Paris, July 15, 1861. After the final partition of Poland Czartoryski and his brother Constantine went to St. Petersburg in 1795 and...
CZATZKES, BARUCH – One of the Neo-Hebraic poets of the beginning of the nineteenth century; lived at Lutzk, Volhynia. Delitzsch ("Zur Gesch. der Jüdischen Poesie," p. 109) mentions him as one of the Germanizing Hebrew poets of the "Bikkure...
DAINOW, ẒEBI HIRSCH B. ZEËB WOLF – Russian preacher; born at Slutzk, government of Minsk, in 1832; died in London March 6, 1877. He possessed oratorical ability of a high order, and inspired the progressive element of the Russian Jewry through his exhortations in...
DAVID B. JACOB OF SZCZEBRSZYN – Polish scholar; known only as the author of a commentary on the so-called "Targum Jonathan" and "Targum Yerushalmi" of the Pentateuch (also known as "Targum Yerushalmi I." and "Targum Yerushalmi II."), and on the Targum Sheni"...
DAVID BEN MOSES OF NOVOGRUDOK – Russian rabbi; born 1769; died in Novogrudok, government of Minsk, 1836. He became rabbi of that town in 1794, and held the position for forty-three years, until his death. He was one of the leading Talmudists of Russia in his...
DAVID B. SAMUEL HA-LEVI – Polish rabbi; born in Lodmir or Vladimir, Volhynia, about 1586 (see Grätz, "Gesch." x. 57, and "Ḳin'at Soferim," p. 48b, note 809); died in Lemberg Jan. 31, 1667. David's chief instructor was his elder brother, Isaac b. Samuel...
DAVIDOVICH, JUDAH LÖB – Russian Hebraist; born at Wilna 1855; died at Odessa Jan. 1, 1898. He spent several years of his youth workingand studying in Western countries. Returning to his native land, he served his term in the Russian army; later he...
DEMBITZER, ḤAYYIM NATHAN – Galician rabbi and historian; born in Cracow June 29, 1820; died there Nov. 20, 1892. His father, Jekuthiel Solomon, a scholarly merchant who claimed he was a descendant of R. Moses Isserles, died in 1833, aged forty-one. While...
DIBBUḲIM – Transmigrated souls. "Dibbuḳ" (lit. "something that cleaves unto something else") is a colloquial equivalent, common among the superstitious Jews in eastern European countries, for a migrant soul. It represents the latest phase...
DICK, ISAAC MAYER – Russian Hebraist and novelist; born in Wilna 1808 (of the various dates the one given by "Aḥiasaf" is probably most nearly correct); died there Jan. 24, 1893. His father, who was a ḥazzan, gave him the usual Talmudical...