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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Peter Wiernik,

Journalist, New York City.

Contributions:
JEWISH ABEND-POST – Yiddish newspaper, issued daily except Saturday and Jewish holidays, established in New York Feb. 3, 1899, by Jacob Saphirstein and Joseph L. Rosenbaum; now (1904) published by the Jewish Press Publishing Company. Its first...
JEWISH LEDGER, THE – Weekly journal; founded in New Orleans, La., Jan. 4, 1895, by A. Steeg, who is still (1904) its publisher. Its first editor was Alexander Harris, who was succeeded by Maurice Switzer, afterward editor of "The Owl" (absorbed by...
JEWISH MORNING JOURNAL (MORGEN JOURNAL) – The first Yiddish daily morning newspaper; established in New York July 2, 1901, by Jacob Saphirstein, who is still (1904) its managing editor; now published by the Jewish Press Publishing Company. Its staff of writers includes...
JEWISH SPECTATOR, THE – The first Jewish weekly journal in the southern United States; founded in Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 19, 1885, by M. Samfield and edited and published by him until 1904. In 1892 his son Joseph M. Samfield assumed the position of...
JEWNIN, ABRAHAM JONAH B. ISAIAH – Russian Talmudist; a native of Paritz, government of Minsk; died at Grodno June 12, 1848, while still young. He was the author of novellæ on the works of Maimonides, part of which appeared in the edition of the "Sefer ha-Miẓwot"...
JOCHELSON, WALDEMAR – Russian explorer and ethnologist; born in Wilna Jan. 1, 1856. He graduated from the gymnasium of Wilna, and became identified with the revolutionary movement. Compelled to leave Russia (1880), he went to Switzerland, where he...
JOEL B. JUDAH SELKI HA-LEVI (LÄMMEL?) – Author of "Dibre ha-Iggeret," a description of the sufferings of the Jews of Glogau when that town was besieged by the Prussians in the winter of 1740-41. It was published at an unknown place in 1741, but became so rare that...
JOLLES, ZECHARIAH ISAIAH B. MORDECAI – Rabbinical scholar and author; born at Lemberg about 1814; died at Minsk, Russia, May 14, 1852. In 1834, after having married the daughter of Jacob Dokshitzer, one of the wealthiest Jews of Minsk, he settled in that city. Jolles...
JONATHANSON, AARON B. ẒEBI – Russian Hebraist and poet; born about 1815; died in Kovno July 27, 1868. His father, a great-grandson of Jonathan Eybeschütz, settled in Wilna, and there Aaron followed the profession of teacher until about 1859, when he removed...
JOSEPH B. MOSES PHINEHAS – Polish rabbi; born 1726; died at Posen 1801. He was a man of wealth and influence, and of great piety. His father-in-law, R. Ezekiel Landau of Prague, frequently cites him in his "Noda'bi-Yehudah." Joseph was successively rabbi...
JOSHUA HÖSCHEL BEN SAUL – Polish rabbi; died in Wilna at an advanced age Sept. 9, 1749. He was named after his grandfather, R. Höschel of Lublin, Brest-Litovsk, and Cracow (d. 1663), and is referred to in a document dated 1745 as being very old. He...
JUDÆO-GERMAN LITERATURE – The earliest known Judæo-German translation of the Maḥzor belongs to the fourteenth century, and Isaac ben Eliezer's "Sefer ha-Gan," which has had many editions, as well as Simeon ben Judah's "Sefer ha-Musar," was written in the...
KADISCH, ZERAH B. MEÏR, OF PRAGUE – Teacher in Rechnitz, Hungary, in the first half of the nineteenth century. In the preface of his "Oẓar ha-Ḥayyim" (Prague, 1832) he states that, incapacitated by sickness after many years of teaching, he embodied the results of...
KALMAN VERMEISA (OF WORMS) – Polish rabbi; died in Lemberg on April 28, 1560; the first known rabbi of that community and one of the earliest great rabbis of Poland. Though probably a native of Worms, as his surname suggests, he was rabbi and head of a...
KANTOR, JUDAH LÖB B. JOSEPH – Russian journalist; born in Wilna 1849; government rabbi of Libau, Courland. For a short time he studied at the rabbinical school of Wilna and later at that of Jitomir, where he graduated as teacher. He also studied medicine in...
KATZENELLENBOGEN – An old, widely ramified family counting many rabbis among its members, who were and are still found in Italy, Poland, Germany, Alsace, and also in America. It derived its name from the locality of Katzenelnbogen in the Prussian...
KATZENELLENBOGEN – An old, widely ramified family counting many rabbis among its members, who were and are still found in Italy, Poland, Germany, Alsace, and also in America. It derived its name from the locality of Katzenelnbogen in the Prussian...
KATZENELLENBOGEN – An old, widely ramified family counting many rabbis among its members, who were and are still found in Italy, Poland, Germany, Alsace, and also in America. It derived its name from the locality of Katzenelnbogen in the Prussian...
KATZENELSON, JUDAH LÖB B. ISRAEL – Russian physician; born in Bobruisk 1848. He studied in the rabbinical school of Jitomir and in the Imperial Medico-Surgical Academy of St. Petersburg, and graduated from the latter in 1877. He took part in the war against...
KLACZKO, JULIAN (JUDAH) – French publicist; born in Wilna, Russia, Nov. 6, 1825. His father belonged to one of the best Jewish families of Wilna, and instructed his son in Hebrew and in Polish. Klaczko early developed poetical ability, and a Hebrew song...
KLACZKO, LEVI JERAHMEEL – Russian educator; born in Wilna June 28, 1840. Formerly a school-teacher in Berdyansk, Crimea, he now follows the same calling in Odessa. He wrote "'Erek Tefillah," a critical investigation of the history and the language of the...
LADIER, DOB BÄR B. SHNEOR ZALMAN – Russian Ḥasidic rabbi; born about 1770; died 1834. He was the son of R. Shneor Zalman of Liady, the founder of the Ḥasidic sect known as "Ḥabad," and succeeded his father as their chief. He is the author of the following...
LEBENSOHN, ABRAHAM DOB BÄR BEN ḤAYYIM – Russian Hebraist, poet, and grammarian; born in Wilna, Russia, about 1789; died there Nov. 19, 1878. Like all Jewish boys of that time in Russia he was educated as a Talmudist, but became interested in Hebrew grammar and...
LEBENSOHN, MICAH JOSEPH – Russian Hebrew poet; born in Wilna, Russia, Feb. 22, 1828; died there Feb. 17, 1852. His father, the poet Abraham Bär Lebensohn, implanted in him the love of Hebrew poetry, and Micah Joseph began very early to translate and to...
LEVIN, MENDEL – Polish scholar and author; born in Satanow, Podolia, about 1741; died in Mikolayev, in the same province, 1819. He was educated for a Talmudist, but became interested in secular studies after reading J. S. Delmedigo's "Elim,"...